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Articles by Y Jin
Total Records ( 11 ) for Y Jin
  Y Chang , H Zheng , Y Shang , Y Jin , G Wang , X Shen and X. Liu

The prototypic foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown more than a century ago to be the first filterable agent capable of causing FMD, and it has served as an important model for studying basic principles of Aphthovirus molecular biology. However, the complex structure and antigenic diversity of FMDV have posed a major obstacle to the attempts at manipulating the infectious virus by reverse genetic techniques. Here, we report the recovery of infectious FMDV from cDNAs based on an efficient in vivo RNA polymerase I (polI) transcription system. Intracellular transcription of the full-length viral genome from polI-based vectors resulted in efficient formation of infectious virus displaying a genetic marker. Compared with wild-type virus, an abundance of genomic mRNA and elevated expression levels of viral antigens were indicative of the hyperfunction throughout the life-cycle of this cDNA-derived virus at transcription, replication, and translation levels. The technology described here could be an extremely valuable molecular biology tool for studying FMDV complex infectious characteristics. It is an operating platform for studying FMDV functional genomics, molecular mechanism of pathogenicity and variation, and lays a solid foundation for the development of viral chimeras toward the prospect of a genetically engineered vaccine.

  W Li , B Zhao , Y Jin and K. Ruan

MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray is a powerful tool to explore the expression profiling of miRNA. The current detection method used in miRNA microarray is mainly fluorescence based, which usually requires costly detection system such as laser confocal scanner of tens of thousands of dollars. Recently, we developed a low-cost yet sensitive detection method for miRNA microarray based on enzyme-linked assay. In this approach, the biotinylated miRNAs were captured by the corresponding oligonucleotide probes immobilized on microarray slide; and then the biotinylated miRNAs would capture streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. A purple-black precipitation on each biotinylated miRNA spot was produced by the enzyme catalytic reaction. It could be easily detected by a charge-coupled device digital camera mounted on a microscope, which lowers the detection cost more than 100 fold compared with that of fluorescence method. Our data showed that signal intensity of the spot correlates well with the biotinylated miRNA concentration and the detection limit for miRNAs is at least 0.4 fmol and the detection dynamic range spans about 2.5 orders of magnitude, which is comparable to that of fluorescence method.

  Y Jin , A. B Hofseth , X Cui , A. J Windust , D Poudyal , A. A Chumanevich , L. E Matesic , N. P Singh , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti and L. J. Hofseth

Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Inflammatory cell apoptosis is a key mechanism regulating ulcerative colitis. American ginseng (AG) is a putative antioxidant that can suppress hyperactive immune cells. We have recently shown that AG can prevent and treat mouse colitis. Because p53 levels are elevated in inflammatory cells in both mouse and human colitis, we tested the hypothesis that AG protects from colitis by driving inflammatory cell apoptosis through a p53 mechanism. We used isogenic p53+/+ and p53–/– inflammatory cell lines as well as primary CD4+/CD25 effector T cells from p53+/+ and p53–/– mice to show that AG drives apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Moreover, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in C57BL/6 p53+/+ and p53–/– mice to test whether the protective effect of AG against colitis is p53 dependent. Data indicate that AG induces apoptosis in p53+/+ but not in isogenic p53–/– cells in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6 p53+/+ mice are responsive to the protective effects of AG against DSS-induced colitis, whereas AG fails to protect from colitis in p53–/– mice. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes is elevated in p53+/+ mice consuming DSS + AG but not in p53–/– mice consuming DSS + AG. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that AG drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which AG protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. Cancer Prev Res; 3(3); 339–47

  X Cui , Y Jin , A. B Hofseth , E Pena , J Habiger , A Chumanevich , D Poudyal , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti , U. P Singh and L. J. Hofseth

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that exhibits pleiotropic health beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, and cancer-protective activities. It is recognized as one of the more promising natural molecules in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disease of the colon associated with a high colon cancer risk. Here, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis, which resembles human ulcerative colitis pathology. Resveratrol mixed in food ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly improves inflammation score, downregulates the percentage of neutrophils in the mesenteric lymph nodes and lamina propria, and modulates CD3+ T cells that express tumor necrosis factor- and IFN-. Markers of inflammation and inflammatory stress (p53 and p53-phospho-Ser15) are also downregulated by resveratrol. Because chronic colitis drives colon cancer risk, we carried out experiments to determine the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol. Tumor incidence is reduced from 80% in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) + DSS to 20% in mice treated with AOM + DSS + resveratrol (300 ppm). Tumor multiplicity also decreased with resveratrol treatment. AOM + DSS–treated mice had 2.4 ± 0.7 tumors per animal compared with AOM + DSS + 300 ppm resveratrol, which had 0.2 ± 0.13 tumors per animal. The current study indicates that resveratrol is a useful, nontoxic complementary and alternative strategy to abate colitis and potentially colon cancer associated with colitis. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 549–59. ©2010 AACR.

  Y Wu , X Feng , Y Jin , Z Wu , W Hankey , C Paisie , L Li , F Liu , S. H Barsky , W Zhang , R Ganju and X. Zou

The natural compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C; found in vegetables of the genus Brassica) is a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent. The cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A) phosphatase is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and other diseases. In the present study, I3C induced degradation of Cdc25A, arrest of the G1 cell cycle, and inhibition of the growth of breast cancer cells. We also showed that the Ser124 site of Cdc25A, which is related to cyclin-dependent kinase 2, is required for I3C-induced degradation of Cdc25A in breast cancer cells, and that interruption of the ATM-Chk2 pathway suppressed I3C-induced destruction of Cdc25A. Our in vivo studies of different mutated forms of Cdc25A found that the mutation Cdc25AS124A (Ser124 to Ala124), which confers resistance to I3C-induced degradation of Cdc25A, attenuated I3C inhibition of breast tumorigenesis in a mouse xenograft model. The present in vitro and in vivo studies together show that I3C-induced activation of the ATM-Chk2 pathway and degradation of Cdc25A represent a novel molecular mechanism of I3C in arresting the G1 cell cycle and inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells. The finding that I3C induces Cdc25A degradation underscores the potential use of this agent for preventing and treating cancers and other human diseases with Cdc25A overexpression. Cancer Prev Res; 3(7); 818–28. ©2010 AACR.

  X Cui , Y Jin , D Poudyal , A. A Chumanevich , T Davis , A Windust , A Hofseth , W Wu , J Habiger , E Pena , P Wood , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti and L. Hofseth

We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG) prevents and treats mouse colitis. Because both mice and humans with chronic colitis have a high colon cancer risk, we tested the hypothesis that AG can be used to prevent colitis-driven colon cancer. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we show that AG can suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of AG, we also carried out antibody array experiments on colon cells isolated at a precancerous stage. We found there were 82 protein end points that were either significantly higher (41 proteins) or significantly lower (41 proteins) in the AOM + DSS group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. In contrast, there were only 19 protein end points that were either significantly higher (10 proteins) or significantly lower (9 proteins) in the AOM + DSS + AG group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. Overall, these results suggest that AG keeps the colon environment in metabolic equilibrium when mice are treated with AOM + DSS and gives insight into the mechanisms by which AG protects from colon cancer associated with colitis.

  Y. L Ruan , Y Jin , Y. J Yang , G. J Li and J. S. Boyer

Invertase (INV) hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose, thereby playing key roles in primary metabolism and plant development. Based on their pH optima and sub-cellular locations, INVs are categorized into cell wall, cytoplasmic, and vacuolar subgroups, abbreviated as CWIN, CIN, and VIN, respectively. The broad importance and implications of INVs in plant development and crop productivity have attracted enormous interest to examine INV function and regulation from multiple perspectives. Here, we review some exciting advances in this area over the last two decades, focusing on (1) new or emerging roles of INV in plant development and regulation at the post-translational level through interaction with inhibitors, (2) cross-talk between INV-mediated sugar signaling and hormonal control of development, and (3) sugar- and INV-mediated responses to drought and heat stresses and their impact on seed and fruit set. Finally, we discuss major questions arising from this new progress and outline future directions for unraveling mechanisms underlying INV-mediated plant development and their potential applications in plant biotechnology and agriculture.

  Z. L Hu , C Huang , H Fu , Y Jin , W. N Wu , Q. J Xiong , N Xie , L. H Long , J. G Chen and F. Wang

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) extensively exist in both central and peripheral neuronal systems and contribute to many physiological and pathological processes. The protein that interacts with C kinase 1 (PICK1) was cloned as one of the proteins interacting with protein kinase C (PKC) and colocalized with ASIC1 and ASIC2. Here, we used PICK1 knockout (PICK1-KO) C57/BL6 mice together with the whole cell patch clamp, calcium imaging, RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry techniques to explore the possible change in ASICs and the regulatory effects of PKC on ASICs. The results showed that PICK1 played a key role in regulation of ASIC functions. In PICK1-KO mouse cortical neurons, both the amplitude of ASIC currents and elevation of [Ca2+]i mediated by acid were decreased, which were attributable to the decreased expression of ASIC1a and ASIC2a proteins in the plasma membrane. PKC, a partner protein of PICK1, regulated ASIC functions via PICK1. The agonist and antagonist of PKC only altered ASIC currents and acid-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in wild-type, but not in KO mice. In conclusion, our data provided the direct evidence from PICK1-KO mice that a novel target protein, PICK1, would regulate ASIC function and membrane expression in the brain. In addition, PICK1 played the bridge role between PKC and ASICs.

  A Fagarasanu , F. D Mast , B Knoblach , Y Jin , M. J Brunner , M. R Logan , J.N. M Glover , G. A Eitzen , J. D Aitchison , L. S Weisman and R. A. Rachubinski

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the class V myosin motor Myo2p propels the movement of most organelles. We recently identified Inp2p as the peroxisome-specific receptor for Myo2p. In this study, we delineate the region of Myo2p devoted to binding peroxisomes. Using mutants of Myo2p specifically impaired in peroxisome binding, we dissect cell cycle–dependent and peroxisome partitioning–dependent mechanisms of Inp2p regulation. We find that although total Inp2p levels oscillate with the cell cycle, Inp2p levels on individual peroxisomes are controlled by peroxisome inheritance, as Inp2p aberrantly accumulates and decorates all peroxisomes in mother cells when peroxisome partitioning is abolished. We also find that Inp2p is a phosphoprotein whose level of phosphorylation is coupled to the cell cycle irrespective of peroxisome positioning in the cell. Our findings demonstrate that both organelle positioning and cell cycle progression control the levels of organelle-specific receptors for molecular motors to ultimately achieve an equidistribution of compartments between mother and daughter cells.

  Y Sugawara , T Matsumura , Y Takegahara , Y Jin , Y Tsukasaki , M Takeichi and Y. Fujinaga

Botulinum neurotoxin's nontoxic HA protein binds E-cadherin to disrupt cell–cell adhesion in a species-specific manner.

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