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Articles by Y Ito
Total Records ( 17 ) for Y Ito
  S Yamada , H Ishii , H Takahashi , T Aoyama , Y Morita , H Kasuga , K Kimura , Y Ito , R Takahashi , T Toriyama , Y Yasuda , M Hayashi , H Kamiya , Y Yuzawa , S Maruyama , S Matsuo , T Matsubara and T. Murohara
 

Background and objectives: Cardiac failure is directly affected by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and particularly LV systolic dysfunction is strongly associated with survival in ESRD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF) measured at the time of initiation of hemodialysis (HD) in incident HD patients.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 1254 consecutive ESRD patients who electively started HD therapy were screened by echocardiography within 1 month after its inception. They were divided into five groups according to LVEF levels with a decrease of 0.1 each and were followed up for up to 7 years. Survival was examined with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Among the 1254 patients, LVEF levels ≥0.6, 0.5 to 0.6, 0.4 to 0.5, 0.3 to 0.4, and <0.3 were seen in 842 (67.1%), 247 (19.7%), 107 (8.5%), 41 (3.3%), and 17 (1.4%) patients, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 7-year event-free rates from cardiovascular death were 84.2, 83.7, 73.6, 59.4, and 30.9% in order of groups with decreasing LVEF of 0.1 each, respectively. Seven-year event-free rates from all-cause death were 69.2, 61.7, 57.1, 45.9, and 23.1% in the respective groups. Even after adjustment for other risk factors, decreasing LVEF was a strong independent predictor for cardiovascular death.

Conclusions: Reduced LVEF on starting HD therapy could stratify risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ESRD patients. Screening by echocardiography at start of HD therapy might be recommended to predict prognosis in patients with ESRD.

  H Takada , T Kawana , Y Ito , R. F Kikuno , H Mamada , T Araki , H Koga , M Asashima and M. Taira
  Hitomi Takada, Takahiro Kawana, Yuzuru Ito, Reiko F. Kikuno, Hiroshi Mamada, Toshiyuki Araki, Hisashi Koga, Makoto Asashima, and Masanori Taira

Post-transcriptional control by RNA-binding proteins is a precise way to assure appropriate levels of gene expression. Here, we identify a novel mRNA regulatory system involving Mex3b (RKHD3) and demonstrate its role in FGF signaling. mex3b mRNA has a 3' long conserved UTR, named 3'LCU, which contains multiple elements for both mRNA destabilization and translational enhancement. Notably, Mex3b promotes destabilization of its own mRNA by binding to the 3'LCU, thereby forming a negative autoregulatory loop. The combination of positive regulation and negative autoregulation constitutes a fine-tuning system for post-transcriptional control. In early embryogenesis, Mex3b is involved in anteroposterior patterning of the neural plate. Consistent with this, Mex3b can attenuate FGF signaling and destabilize mRNAs for the FGF signaling components Syndecan 2 and Ets1b through their 3' UTRs. These data suggest that the 3'LCU-mediated fine-tuning system determines the appropriate level of mex3b expression, which in turn contributes to neural patterning through regulating FGF signaling.

  Y Haga , K Totani , Y Ito and T. Suzuki
 

During N-glycosylation of proteins, significant amounts of free unconjugated glycans are also generated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These ER-derived free glycans are translocated into the cytosol by a putative transporter on the ER membrane for further processing. However, the molecular nature of the transporter remains to be determined. Here, we report the establishment of a novel assay method for free oligosaccharide transport from the ER lumen using chemically synthesized fluorescence-labeled N-glycan derivatives. In this method, fluorescence-labeled glycan substrates were encapsulated inside mouse liver microsomes, followed by incubation with the cytosol and a fluorescence-quenching agent (anti-fluorophore antibody). The rate of substrate efflux was then monitored in real time by the decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The present data clearly demonstrated that the oligosaccharide transport activity under the current assay conditions was both ATP and cytosol dependent. The transporter activity was also found to be glycan structure specific because free glucosylated glycans were unable to be transported out of the microsomes. This new assay method will be a useful tool for identifying the transporter protein on the ER membrane.

  D Hu , Y Kamiya , K Totani , D Kamiya , N Kawasaki , D Yamaguchi , I Matsuo , N Matsumoto , Y Ito , K Kato and K. Yamamoto
 

Glucosidase II (GII) is a glycan-processing enzyme that trims two 1,3-linked glucose residues from N-glycan on newly synthesized glycoproteins. Trimming of the first 1,3-linked glucose from Glc2Man9GlcNAc2 (G2M9) is important for a glycoprotein to interact with calnexin/calreticulin (CNX/CRT), and cleavage of the innermost glucose from Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 (G1M9) sets glycoproteins free from the CNX/CRT cycle and allows them to proceed to the Golgi apparatus. GII is a heterodimeric complex consisting of a catalytic subunit (GII) and a tightly associated β subunit (GIIβ) that contains a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain. A recent study has suggested a possible involvement of the MRH domain of GIIβ (GIIβ-MRH) in the glucose trimming process via its putative sugar-binding activity. However, it remains unknown whether GIIβ-MRH possesses sugar-binding activity and, if so, what role this activity plays in the function of GII. Here, we demonstrate that human GIIβ-MRH binds to high-mannose-type glycans. Frontal affinity chromatography revealed that GIIβ-MRH binds most strongly to the glycans with the 1,2-linked mannobiose structure. GII with the mutant GIIβ that lost the sugar-binding activity of GIIβ-MRH hydrolyzes p-nitrophenyl--glucopyranoside, but the capacity to remove glucose residues from G1M9 and G2M9 is significantly decreased. Our results clearly demonstrate the capacity of the GIIβ-MRH to bind high-mannose-type glycans and its importance in efficient glucose trimming of N-glycans.

  K Mikami , D Yamaguchi , H Tateno , D Hu , S. Y Qin , N Kawasaki , M Yamada , N Matsumoto , J Hirabayashi , Y Ito and K. Yamamoto
 

Misfolded glycoproteins are translocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytoplasm for proteasome-mediated degradation. OS-9 protein is thought to participate in ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (ERAD). The recombinant biotinylated mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain of human OS-9 (OS-9MRH) together with six kinds of mutated OS-9MRH were prepared and mixed with R-phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled streptavidin to form tetramers (OS-9MRH-SA). The PE-labeled OS-9MRH-SA bound to HeLaS3 cells in a metal ion-independent manner through amino acid residues homologous to those participating in sugar binding of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and this binding was greatly increased by swainsonine, deoxymannojirimycin, or kifunensine treatment. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-deficient Lec1 cells, but not Lec2 or Lec8 cells, were also strongly bound by the tetramer. OS-9MRH-SA binding to the cells was strongly inhibited by Man1,6(Man1,3)Man1,6(Man1,3)Man and Man1,6Man. To further determine the specificity of native ligands for OS-9MRH, frontal affinity chromatography was performed using a wide variety of 92 different oligosaccharides. We found that several N-glycans containing terminal 1,6-linked mannose in the Man1,6(Man1,3)Man1,6(Man1,3)Man structure were good ligands for OS-9MRH, having Ka values of approximately 104 M–1 and that trimming of either an 1,6-linked mannose from the C-arm or an 1,3-linked mannose from the B-arm abrogated binding to OS-9MRH. An immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that the 1-antitrypsin variant nullHong Kong, but not wild-type 1-antitrypsin, selectively interacted with OS-9 in the cells in a sugar-dependent manner. These results suggest that trimming of the outermost 1,2-linked mannose on the C-arm is a critical process for misfolded proteins to enter ERAD.

  M. M Sira , T Yoshida , M Takeuchi , Y Kashiwayama , T Futatani , H Kanegane , A Sasahara , Y Ito , M Mizuguchi , T Imanaka and T. Miyawaki
 

Human colostrum contains many bioactive factors that must promote the development of intestinal mucosal immunity in infants. Especially, the presence of certain cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β or IL-10 has been of great interest for IgA production as a function of mucosal immune response. In the present study, we attempted to investigate whether unidentified factors inducing generation of IgA-producing cells from naive B cells might exist in colostrum. For this purpose, colostrum samples were directly added to a culture consisting of naive B cells and dendritic cells from cord blood and CD40 ligand-transfected L cells, comparing with recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) and/or rTGF-β. It was noted that most colostrum samples alone were able to induce IgA-secreting cells at higher levels than rIL-10 and/or rTGF-β. IgA-inducing activity of colostrum was abolished by neither anti-neutralizing mAbs against IL-10 nor TGF-β, though partially by anti-IL-6 mAb. We prepared partially purified fractions from both pooled colostrums with and without IgA-inducing activity and comparatively performed quantitative proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. As a result, syntenin-1 was identified as a candidate for IgA-inducing protein in colostrum. Western blot analysis indicated that levels of syntenin-1 in colostrum samples were correlated with their IgA-inducing activities. Moreover, we demonstrated that recombinant syntenin-1 could induce preferentially IgA production from naive B cells. These results suggest that syntenin-1 serves as one of IgA-inducing factors for B cells.

  M Imada , K Masuda , R Satoh , Y Ito , Y Goto , T Matsuoka , S Endo , A Nakamura , H Kawamoto and T. Takai
 

Activated mature T cells induce various inhibitory receptors implicated in maintaining peripheral tolerance in response to the trans-acting ligands. Interestingly, paired Ig-like receptor (PIR)-B, an inhibitory MHC class I receptor on B cells and myeloid cells, could be involved in regulating early T cell development because epitope for PIR is detected on pre-thymic T/NK progenitors but not on thymocytes or mature T cells. We hypothesized that PIR-B is not only a regulator for T cell development but is also detrimental if expressed on mature T cells. Here we demonstrated, using PIR-B-deficient fetuses, that PIR-B is indeed expressed on the T cell progenitors but failed to identify its distinctive roles in the development. Forced expression of PIR-B in thymocytes and mature T cells also resulted in no abnormalities in development. However, upon antigenic or allogeneic stimulation, peripheral T cells with the ectopic PIR-B showed reduced Th type 1 responses due to the suppression of proximal TCR signaling by constitutive binding of PIR-B to MHC class I on the same cell surface. Our findings suggest that T cell expression of PIR-B with the cis-interacting MHC class I is strictly prohibited in periphery so as to secure prompt immune responses.

  N Sato , Y Ito , A Ioka , M Tanaka and H. Tsukuma
 

Relative 5-year survival for stomach cancer has increased gradually in Osaka for more than two decades, while women show a small but consistently lower survival for it. We analyzed gender differences in stomach cancer survival, using relative survival model proposed by Dickman et al. Study subjects were reported stomach cancer cases diagnosed in 1975–99. We estimated the excess hazard ratios (EHRs) of death using Poisson's regression model. The crude EHR for women was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–1.14] in comparison with men. After adjustments for year and age at diagnosis, the EHR for women decreased to 1.07 (95% CI: 1.05–1.09), and furthermore, it reached to an insignificant level of 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99–1.04) after an additional adjustment for the extent of disease (localized, regional, distant and unknown). With further adjustments by histological type (intestinal, diffuse and others/unknown), method of detection (screening or not) and treatment (surgery or not), the EHR decreased to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94–0.99), significantly lower than the unity. These results indicate that the lower stomach cancer survival among women was attributable mainly to more advanced stages among women. The survival for women would have been a little better than for men if prognostic factors for stomach cancer had been comparable between the sexes. Inequality by the gender in taking screening, medical examination or treatment for stomach cancer was suggested to exist in Osaka, Japan.

  I Sekine , M Sumi , Y Ito , C Tanai , H Nokihara , N Yamamoto , H Kunitoh , Y Ohe and T. Tamura
  Objective

To identify any gender differences in the outcomes of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods

A comparative retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes between female and male NSCLC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy.

Results

Of a total of 204 patients, 44 (22%) were females and 160 (78%) were males. There was no difference in age, body weight loss, performance status or disease stage between the sexes, whereas never-smokers and adenocarcinoma were more common in female patients (55% vs. 3%, P < 0.001, and 73% vs. 55%, P = 0.034, respectively). Full cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy at a total dose of 60 Gy were administered to ~70% and >80% of the patients, respectively, of both sexes. Grade 3–4 neutropenia was observed in 64% of the female patients and 63% of the male patients. Severe esophagitis was encountered in <10% of the patients, irrespective of the sex. The response rate was higher in the female than in the male patients (93% vs. 79%, P = 0.028), but the median progression-free survival did not differ between the sexes. The median survival time in the female and male patients was 22.3 and 24.3 months, respectively (P = 0.64).

Conclusions

This study failed to show any gender differences in the survival or toxicity among patients treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These results contrast with the better survival in female patients undergoing surgery for localized disease or chemotherapy for metastatic disease.

  A Kishimoto Okada , S Murakami , Y Ito , N Horii , H Furukawa , J Takagi and K. Iwasaki
 

Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of vitrified specimens are gradually gaining popularity. However, similar to the conventional methods, these techniques tend to produce different images of the same sample. In CEMOVIS, the mechanical stress caused by sectioning may cause inaccuracies smaller than those caused by crevasses. Therefore, we examined Escherichia coli cells by using CEMOVIS and cryo-ET to determine the differences in the computed sizes of the envelope layers, which are smaller than crevasses. We found that the width of the periplasmic space in vitreous sections and tomograms was 12 and 14 nm, respectively; furthermore, while the distance between the outer membrane (OM) and the peptidoglycan (PG) layer was almost equal (11 nm) in the two techniques, that between the plasma membrane (PM) and PG was clearly different. Thus, the observed size difference can be mainly attributed to the PM–PG distance. Since our data were obtained from images acquired using the same microscope in the same conditions, the size differences cannot be attributed to microscope-related factors. One possible factor is the angle of the cutting plane against the long axis of the cell body in CEMOVIS. However, the same PG–OM distance in both methods may exclude the variations caused by this factor. Furthermore, the mechanical stress caused by vitreous sectioning or high-pressure freezing may result in shrinkage. If this shrinkage is responsible for the nanometre-scale deformation in CEMOVIS, this factor will have to be considered in determining the molecular resolution obtained by CEMOVIS.

  Y Yuzawa , Y Ito , M Mizuno , A Sawai and S. Matsuo
 

We report the pathological findings of the peritoneum in a patient with chronic eosinophilic peritonitis. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was confirmed before insertion of Tenckhoff catheter. Eosinophilic peritonitis continued from the second day after initiation of peritoneal dialysis for 18 months. Pathological findings showed numerous eosinophils in peritoneal blood vessels. Mast cells were also detected in the peritoneum, while neoangiogenesis was not prominent. The highly permeable state of the peritoneal membrane may be due to inflammatory mediators, such as tryptase. Mast cells may be involved in high peritoneal permeability in such patients.

  T Funakoshi , N Iwasaki , T Kamishima , M Nishida , Y Ito , M Kondo and A. Minami
 

Background: Hypoxia and decreased blood supply have been proposed as risks for tendon rupture. Visualization of the vascularity of intact and torn rotator cuffs would be useful for improving treatments for rotator cuff tear.

Purpose: To assess vascularity inside a tendon or an adjacent rotator cuff insertion point in patients differing in age and extent of damage to the tendon.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Ten volunteers (all men) and 15 patients (10 men, 5 women) consented to participate in the study. Contrast agent for enhanced ultrasound was injected intravenously. Enhanced ultrasound images of the torn cuff and the contralateral shoulder were recorded for 1 minute. Four small regions of interest, the articular and bursal sides of the tendon and the medial and lateral sides of the bursa, were studied in all shoulders.

Results: There was a significant decrease in blood flow in the intratendinous region in elderly subjects compared with young subjects, but age had no effect on blood flow in bursal tissue. Blood flow in ruptured rotator cuffs did not differ from that in intact rotator cuffs. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reproducibility was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.86).

Conclusions: The findings of this investigation were the hypovascular pattern in intratendinous tissue compared with the subacromial bursa, the age-related decrease in intratendinous vascularity, and the hypovascular pattern in the tendon, regardless of rupture of the tendon. Clarification of vascular patterns inside or around the torn ends of a rotator cuff will assist in the development of successful treatments for torn rotator cuffs.

  S Muraoka , Y Ito , M Kamimura , M Baba , N Arima , Y Suda , S Hashiguchi , M Torikai , T Nakashima and K. Sugimura
 

By a biopanning method using cell sorter, we quickly isolated an antibody phage clone (S1T-A3) specific to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-carrying T-cell line S1T from a human single chain Fv (scFv) antibody phage library. This scFv antibody bound to HTLV-1-carrying T-cell lines including MT-2, MT-4 and M8166 other than S1T, but not to non-HTLV-1-carrying T-cell lymphomas such as Jurkat and MOLT4 cells. Interestingly, this antibody induced the cell death on S1T cells very quickly (< 30 min). We tried to identify the target molecules by western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis, revealing that the target antigen was HLA class II DR. The cell death was induced only in dimmer form of scFv (diabody) and at 15-fold lower concentration than that of a fusion protein of scFv and human IgG Fc [(scFv)2-Fc] or anti HLA-DR mouse whole antibody L243. Thus, S1T-A3 diabody is a small antibody fragment with agonistic activity to induce cell death through HLA-DR. This is the first report elucidating that diabody specific to HLA-DR is effective to induce the cell death in T-cell malignancy especially adult T-cell leukaemic cell line.

  M Sato , Y Ito , N Arima , M Baba , M Sobel , M Wakao and Y. Suda
 

To analyse the binding of sugar chains to proteins, viruses and cells, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is very convenient and effective because it is a real-time, non-destructive detection system. Key to this method is linker compounds for immobilization of the sugar chains to the gold-coated chip for SPR. Also, well-designed fluorescent labelling reagents are essential when analysing the structure of trace amounts of sugar chains derived from natural sources, such as glycoproteins on the surface of specific cells. In this report, we developed a novel linker molecule, named ‘f-mono’, which has both of these properties: simple immobilization chemistry and a fluorescent label. Since the molecule contains a 2,5-diaminopyridyl group and a thioctic acid group, conjugation with sugar chains can be achieved using the well-established reductive amination reaction. This conjugate of sugar chain and fluorescent linker (fluorescent ligand-conjugate, FLC) has fluorescent properties (ex. 335 nm, em. 380 nm), and as little as 1 µg of FLC can be easily purified using HPLC with a fluorescent detector. MS and MS/MS analysis of the FLC is also possible. As a +2 Da larger MS peak ([M + H + 2]+ ion) was always associated with the theoretical MS peak ([M + H]+) (due to the reduction of the thioctic acid moiety), the MS peaks of the FLC were easily found, even using unfractionated crude samples. Immobilization of the FLC onto gold-coated chips, and their subsequent SPR analyses were successively accomplished, as had been performed previously using non-fluorescent ligand conjugates.

  J Yang , R Yoshida , Y Kariya , X Zhang , S Hashiguchi , T Nakashima , Y Suda , A Takada , Y Ito and K. Sugimura
 

The development of new therapeutic targets and strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is urgently needed. Neutralizing recombinant human antibodies would provide important agents for immunotherapy on human H5N1 virus infection and definition of the critical mimotope for vaccine development. In this study, we have characterized an anti-H5-specific scFv clone, 3D1 from the human-scFv-displaying phage library. 3D1 blocked the binding of H5-Fc to MDCK cells in flow cytometry and neutralized H5N1 subtype influenza A viruses in a microneutralization assay. Employing a peptide-displaying phage library, Ph.D-12, the mimotope was determined to be at #128-131 and #204-211 of H5, which are silic acid-binding regions. In consistency with this result, 3D1 binds the recombinant sugar-binding domain (#50G-#272E) produced by a baculovirus vector. The 3D1 antibody employs the germline gene VH1-23. As this antibody is the first human anti-H5 scFv clearly defined on the sugar-binding epitope, it allows us to investigate the influence of amino acid substitutions in this region on the determination of the binding specificity to either sialic acid 2,6-galactose (SA 2,6Gal) or sialic acid 2,3-galactose (SA 2,3Gal) providing new insight for the development of effective H5N1 pandemic vaccines.

  A Sato , M Mishima , A Nagai , S. Y Kim , Y Ito , T Hakoshima , J. G Jee and K. Kitano
 

Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by a loss of function of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Here we report on the first 3D structure of a BLM fragment, a solution structure of the C-terminal helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals unique features of BLM HRDC that are distinct from the HRDC domain of Werner syndrome protein. In particular, BLM HRDC retains many acidic residues exposed to the solvent, which makes the domain surface extensively electronegative. Consistent with this, fluorescence polarization assays showed an inability of isolated BLM HRDC to interact with DNA substrates. Analyses employing ultracentrifugation, gel-filtration, CD spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the BLM HRDC domain exists as a stable monomer in solution. The results show that BLM HRDC is a compact, robust and acidic motif which may play a distinct role apart from DNA binding.

 
 
 
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