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Articles by Y Fan
Total Records ( 5 ) for Y Fan
  C Bian , F Zhang , F Wang , Z Ling , M Luo , H Wu , Y Sun , J Li , B Li , J Zhu , L Tang , Y Zhou , Q Shi , Y Ji , L Tian , G Lin , Y Fan , N Wang and B. Sun

DNA immunization is an efficient method for high-affinity monoclonal antibody generation. Here, we describe the generation of several high-quality monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an important marker for kidney abnormality and dysfunction, with a combination method of DNA priming and protein boost. The mAbs generated could bind to RBP4 with high sensitivity and using these mAbs, an immunocolloidal gold fast test strip was constructed. The strip can give a result in <5 min and is very sensitive with a detection limit of about 1 ng/ml. A small-scale clinical test revealed that the result of this strip was well in accordance with that of an enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay kit currently available on the market. Consequently, it could be useful for more convenient and faster RBP4 determination in the clinic.

  C Davatzikos , F Xu , Y An , Y Fan and S. M. Resnick

A challenge in developing informative neuroimaging biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is the need to identify biomarkers that are evident before the onset of clinical symptoms, and which have sufficient sensitivity and specificity on an individual patient basis. Recent literature suggests that spatial patterns of brain atrophy discriminate amongst Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN) older adults with high accuracy on an individual basis, thereby offering promise that subtle brain changes can be detected during prodromal Alzheimer's disease stages. Here, we investigate whether these spatial patterns of brain atrophy can be detected in CN and MCI individuals and whether they are associated with cognitive decline. Images from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were used to construct a pattern classifier that recognizes spatial patterns of brain atrophy which best distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients from CN on an individual person basis. This classifier was subsequently applied to longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans of CN and MCI participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) neuroimaging study. The degree to which Alzheimer's disease-like patterns were present in CN and MCI subjects was evaluated longitudinally in relation to cognitive performance. The oldest BLSA CN individuals showed progressively increasing Alzheimer's disease-like patterns of atrophy, and individuals with these patterns had reduced cognitive performance. MCI was associated with steeper longitudinal increases of Alzheimer's disease-like patterns of atrophy, which separated them from CN (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve equal to 0.89). Our results suggest that imaging-based spatial patterns of brain atrophy of Alzheimer's disease, evaluated with sophisticated pattern analysis and recognition methods, may be useful in discriminating among CN individuals who are likely to be stable versus those who will show cognitive decline. Future prospective studies will elucidate the temporal dynamics of spatial atrophy patterns and the emergence of clinical symptoms.

  G Fan , Y Fan , N Gupta , I Matsuura , F Liu , X. Z Zhou , K. P Lu and C. Gelinas

The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is frequently up-regulated in human cancers in which Rel/nuclear factor-B (NF-B) is constitutively activated, but its role in these cancers remains to be determined, and evidence is still lacking to show that Pin1 contributes to cell transformation by Rel/NF-B. Rel/NF-B transcriptional and oncogenic activities are modulated by several posttranslational modifications and coregulatory proteins, and previous studies showed that cytokine treatment induces binding of Pin1 to the RelA subunit of NF-B, thereby enhancing RelA nuclear localization and stability. Here we show that Pin1 associates with the Rel subunits of NF-B that are implicated in leukemia/lymphomagenesis and modulates their transcriptional and oncogenic activities. Pin1 markedly enhanced transformation of primary lymphocytes by the human c-Rel protein and also increased cell transformation by the potent viral Rel/NF-B oncoprotein v-Rel, in contrast to a Pin1 mutant in the WW domain involved in interaction with NF-B. Pin1 promoted nuclear accumulation of Rel proteins in the absence of activating stimuli. Importantly, inhibition of Pin1 function with the pharmacologic inhibitor juglone or with Pin1-specific shRNA led to cytoplasmic relocalization of endogenous c-Rel in human lymphoma-derived cell lines, markedly interfered with lymphoma cell proliferation, and suppressed endogenous Rel/NF-B–dependent gene expression. Together, these results show that Pin1 is an important regulator of Rel/NF-B transforming activity and suggest that Pin1 may be a potential therapeutic target in Rel/NF-B–dependent leukemia/lymphomas. [Cancer Res 2009;69(11):4589–97]

  Z Yang , B. H Funke , L. H Cripe , G. W Vick , D Mancini Dinardo , L. S Pena , R. J Kanter , B Wong , B. H Westerfield , J. J Varela , Y Fan , J. A Towbin and M. Vatta

Background— Danon disease is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by the clinical triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and variable mental retardation. Pathologically, autophagic vacuoles are noted in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. It exhibits an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance, and male carriers are severely affected, whereas female carriers develop milder and later-onset cardiac symptoms. Danon disease has been associated with mutations in the lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2 (LAMP2) gene located at Xq24, typically resulting in splicing defects or protein truncation affecting the LAMP2. Because of its rarity, the full spectrum of genetic mutation resulting in Danon disease has not been elucidated.

Methods and Results— We analyzed 3 male cases with clinical and pathological findings consistent with Danon disease. Comprehensive mutational analysis failed to yield detectable products for selected LAMP2 exons, and genomic DNA deletion was suspected. Genomic junction fragment polymerase chain reaction analysis in case 1 identified a novel Alu-mediated 34-kb microdeletion encompassing the entire 5'-untranslated region and exon 1 of LAMP2. In case 2 and 3, junctional polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses mapped the breakpoint to an MIRb and (TA)n simple repeats present in intron 3, which determined a 64-kb and a 58-kb deletion, respectively, thereby ablating exons 4 to 10. Western blot analysis confirmed the absence of LAMP2 in protein extract from lymphocytes of index case 2.

Conclusion— This article is the first report of Danon disease caused by microdeletions at Xq24, which functionally ablate LAMP2. The microdeletion mechanism appears to involve 1 Alu-mediated unequal recombination and 2 chromosomal breakage points involving TA-rich repeat sequences.

  N Matigian , G Abrahamsen , R Sutharsan , A. L Cook , A. M Vitale , A Nouwens , B Bellette , J An , M Anderson , A. G Beckhouse , M Bennebroek , R Cecil , A. M Chalk , J Cochrane , Y Fan , F Feron , R McCurdy , J. J McGrath , W Murrell , C Perry , J Raju , S Ravishankar , P. A Silburn , G. T Sutherland , S Mahler , G. D Mellick , S. A Wood , C. M Sue , C. A Wells and A. Mackay Sim
  Nicholas Matigian, Greger Abrahamsen, Ratneswary Sutharsan, Anthony L. Cook, Alejandra M. Vitale, Amanda Nouwens, Bernadette Bellette, Jiyuan An, Matthew Anderson, Anthony G. Beckhouse, Maikel Bennebroek, Rowena Cecil, Alistair M. Chalk, Julie Cochrane, Yongjun Fan, Francois Feron, Richard McCurdy, John J. McGrath, Wayne Murrell, Chris Perry, Jyothy Raju, Sugandha Ravishankar, Peter A. Silburn, Greg T. Sutherland, Stephen Mahler, George D. Mellick, Stephen A. Wood, Carolyn M. Sue, Christine A. Wells, and Alan Mackay-Sim There is a pressing need for patient-derived cell models of brain diseases that are relevant and robust enough to produce the large quantities of cells required for molecular and functional analyses. We describe here a new cell model based on patient-derived cells from the human olfactory mucosa, the organ of smell, which regenerates throughout life from neural stem cells. Olfactory mucosa biopsies were obtained from healthy controls and patients with either schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder, or Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative disease. Biopsies were dissociated and grown as neurospheres in defined medium. Neurosphere-derived cell lines were grown in serum-containing medium as adherent monolayers and stored frozen. By comparing 42 patient and control cell lines we demonstrated significant disease-specific alterations in gene expression, protein expression and cell function, including dysregulated neurodevelopmental pathways in schizophrenia and dysregulated mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism in Parkinson’s disease. The study has identified new candidate genes and cell pathways for future investigation. Fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients did not show these differences. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells have many advantages over embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells as models for brain diseases. They do not require genetic reprogramming and they can be obtained from adults with complex genetic diseases. They will be useful for understanding disease aetiology, for diagnostics and for drug discovery.

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