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Articles by Y Cao
Total Records ( 9 ) for Y Cao
  K Iskandar , Y Cao , Y Hayashi , M Nakata , E Takano , T Yada , C Zhang , W Ogawa , M Oki , S Chua , H Itoh , T Noda , M Kasuga and J. Nakae

Both insulin and leptin signaling converge on phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase [PI(3)K]/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1)/protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Forkhead box-containing protein-O1 (FoxO1) is inactivated in a PI(3)K-dependent manner. However, the interrelationship between PI(3)K/PDK-1/Akt and FoxO1, and the chronic effects of the overexpression of FoxO1 in POMC neurons on energy homeostasis has not been elucidated. To determine the extent to which PDK-1 and FoxO1 signaling in POMC neurons was responsible for energy homeostasis, we generated POMC neuron-specific Pdk1 knockout mice (POMCPdk1–/–) and mice selectively expressing a constitutively nuclear (CN)FoxO1 or transactivation-defective (256)FoxO1 in POMC neurons (CNFoxO1POMC or 256FoxO1POMC). POMCPdk1–/– mice showed increased food intake and body weight accompanied by decreased expression of Pomc gene. The CNFoxO1POMC mice exhibited mild obesity and hyperphagia compared with POMCPdk1–/– mice. Although expression of the CNFoxO1 made POMCPdk1–/– mice more obese due to excessive suppression of Pomc gene, overexpression of 256FoxO1 in POMC neurons had no effects on metabolic phenotypes and Pomc expression levels of POMCPdk1–/– mice. These data suggest a requirement for PDK-1 and FoxO1 in transcriptional regulation of Pomc and food intake.

  K. A Sloan , H. A Marquez , J Li , Y Cao , A Hinds , C. J O'Hara , S Kathuria , M. I Ramirez , M. C Williams and H. Kathuria

Caveolin-1 protein has been called a ‘conditional tumor suppressor’ because it can either suppress or enhance tumor progression depending on cellular context. Caveolin-1 levels are dynamic in non-small-cell lung cancer, with increased levels in metastatic tumor cells. We have shown previously that transactivation of an erythroblastosis virus-transforming sequence (ETS) cis-element enhances caveolin-1 expression in a murine lung epithelial cell line. Based on high sequence homology between the murine and human caveolin-1 promoters, we proposed that ETS proteins might regulate caveolin-1 expression in human lung tumorigenesis. We confirm that caveolin-1 is not detected in well-differentiated primary lung tumors. Polyoma virus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3), a pro-metastatic ETS protein in breast cancer, is expressed at low levels in well-differentiated tumors and high levels in poorly differentiated tumors. Conversely, Net, a known ETS repressor, is expressed at high levels in the nucleus of well-differentiated primary tumor cells. In tumor cells in metastatic lymph node sites, caveolin-1 and PEA3 are highly expressed, whereas Net is now expressed in the cytoplasm. We studied transcriptional regulation of caveolin-1 in two human lung cancer cell lines, Calu-1 (high caveolin-1 expressing) and NCI-H23 (low caveolin-1 expressing). Chromatin immunoprecipitation-binding assays and small interfering RNA experiments show that PEA3 is a transcriptional activator in Calu-1 cells and that Net is a transcriptional repressor in NCI-H23 cells. These results suggest that Net may suppress caveolin-1 transcription in primary lung tumors and that PEA3 may activate caveolin-1 transcription in metastatic lymph nodes.

  Z Han , Z Hong , C Chen , Q Gao , D Luo , Y Fang , Y Cao , T Zhu , X Jiang , Q Ma , W Li , L Han , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , L Meng , J Zhou and D. Ma

Tumor cells acquire the ability to proliferate uncontrollably, resist apoptosis, sustain angiogenesis and evade immune surveillance. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates all of these processes in a surprisingly large number of human cancers. Consequently, the STAT3 protein is emerging as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This paper reports the generation of an oncolytic adenovirus (M4), which selectively blocks STAT3 signaling in tumor cells as a novel therapeutic strategy. M4 selectively replicated in tumor cells and expressed high levels of antisense STAT3 complementary DNA during the late phase of the viral infection in a replication-dependent manner. The viral progeny yield of M4 in tumor cells was much higher than that of the parent adenoviral mutants, Ad5/dE1A. M4 effectively silenced STAT3 and its target genes in tumor cells while sparing normal cells and exhibited potent antitumoral efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of M4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an orthotopic gastric carcinoma mouse model, eliminated abdominal cavity metastases and prolonged survival time. In summary, M4 has low toxicity and great potential as a therapeutic agent for different types of cancers.

  J Liao , Q Qi , X Zhu , Y Cao and T. Li

IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) is over IP network architecture, but mobile IP cannot directly support session mobility controlled by session initiation protocol-based signaling. The long signaling delay for session reestablishment in application layer always results in session interruptions during the handoff. Therefore, handoff poses a challenge for quality of service (QoS) maintenance in IMS that targets to offer real-time multimedia applications over wireless mobile networks. The existing approaches to solve this problem depend on the advance resource reservation and the optimization of handoff control. Unfortunately, big cost of the advance resource reservation in neighboring domains is a major problem that leads to a serious signaling load and a waste of wireless bandwidth. To solve this issue, we present an enhanced IMS handoff mechanism (EHM) based on user mobility prediction to save network resources by avoiding multiple useless advance reservations. In addition, to support the heterogeneous access networks in IMS domain, EHM evolves a network selective scheme to utilize the network resources more efficiently. The architecture of EHM and the advance QoS negotiation signaling are also presented. We model the cost, the handoff delay and the session blocking probability for EHM and the previous work. Analytical and simulation results show that EHM can enhance the handoff performance, such as reducing resource reservation cost greatly, decreasing session reestablishment delay and making good use of multiple access network resources.

  Y Tu , J Lu , J Fu , Y Cao , G Fu , R Kang , X Tian and B. Wang

Neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor family, a group of proteins which are known to activate and thereby regulate Rho family members. Deregulation of neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 expression has been found in certain types of human tumors. To investigate its prognostic value in human gliomas, which is currently unknown, we examined the correlation between neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 expression and prognosis in patients with gliomas.


Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 expression patterns in the biopsies from 96 patients with primary gliomas. Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox's regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognosis of patients.


Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 antibody revealed that neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 was significantly associated with the Karnofsky performance scale score and World Health Organization grades of patients with gliomas. Especially, the positive expression rates of neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 were significantly higher in patients with higher grade (P = 0.001) and lower Karnofsky's performance scale score (P = 0.005). The median survival of patients with high neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 expression was significantly shorter than that with low expression and without expression (316, 892 and 1180 days, respectively). Cox's multifactor analysis showed that the Karnofsky performance scale (P = 0.01), World Health Organization grade (P = 0.008) and neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 (P = 0.006) were independent prognosis factors for human glioma.


Taken together, our study indicates for the first time that neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 status may be a highly sensitive marker for glioma prognosis and suggest that the expression patterns of neuroepithelial-transforming protein 1 might be a potent tool for predicting the clinical prognosis of glioma patients.

  W. L Yen , T Shintani , U Nair , Y Cao , B. C Richardson , Z Li , F. M Hughson , M Baba and D. J. Klionsky

COG subunits localize to the phagophore assembly site where they interact with autophagy proteins and are required for double-membrane Cvt vesicle and autophagosome formation.

  X Huang , X Bai , Y Cao , J Wu , M Huang , D Tang , S Tao , T Zhu , Y Liu , Y Yang , X Zhou , Y Zhao , M Wu , J Wei , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , D Ma and J. Zhou

Angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as an important prognosticator associated with the progression of lymphoma and as an attractive target for novel modalities. We report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which lymphoma endothelium facilitates the growth and dissemination of lymphoma by interacting with circulated T cells and suppresses the activation of CD4+ T cells. Global gene expression profiles of microdissected endothelium from lymphoma and reactive lymph nodes revealed that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) was preferentially expressed in lymphoma-derived endothelial cells (ECs). Clinically, the level of Tim-3 in B cell lymphoma endothelium was closely correlated to both dissemination and poor prognosis. In vitro, Tim-3+ ECs modulated T cell response to lymphoma surrogate antigens by suppressing activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes through the activation of the interleukin-6–STAT3 pathway, inhibiting Th1 polarization, and providing protective immunity. In a lymphoma mouse model, Tim-3–expressing ECs promoted the onset, growth, and dissemination of lymphoma by inhibiting activation of CD4+ T cells and Th1 polarization. Our findings strongly argue that the lymphoma endothelium is not only a vessel system but also a functional barrier facilitating the establishment of lymphoma immune tolerance. These findings highlight a novel molecular mechanism that is a potential target for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy and controlling metastatic diseases.

  Z Tang , P Arjunan , C Lee , Y Li , A Kumar , X Hou , B Wang , P Wardega , F Zhang , L Dong , Y Zhang , S. Z Zhang , H Ding , R. N Fariss , K. G Becker , J Lennartsson , N Nagai , Y Cao and X. Li

Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on the original members of the family, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC remains largely to be explored. We report a novel finding that PDGF-CC is a potent neuroprotective factor that acts by modulating glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity. In several different animal models of neuronal injury, such as axotomy-induced neuronal death, neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury, 6-hydroxydopamine–induced Parkinson’s dopaminergic neuronal death, and ischemia-induced stroke, PDGF-CC protein or gene delivery protected different types of neurons from apoptosis in both the retina and brain. On the other hand, loss-of-function assays using PDGF-C null mice, neutralizing antibody, or short hairpin RNA showed that PDGF-CC deficiency/inhibition exacerbated neuronal death in different neuronal tissues in vivo. Mechanistically, we revealed that the neuroprotective effect of PDGF-CC was achieved by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation and expression. Our data demonstrate that PDGF-CC is critically required for neuronal survival and may potentially be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of the PDGF-CC–PDGF receptor pathway for different clinical purposes should be conducted with caution to preserve normal neuronal functions.

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