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Articles by X. Zhao
Total Records ( 4 ) for X. Zhao
  B. Baurhoo , F. Goldflus and X. Zhao
  A study was conducted to determine effects of a mannanoligosaccharide prebiotic, derived from cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on morphological development of the intestines and microbial populations of the ceca and litter. Dietary treatments included: antibiotic-free diet (CTL), diet 1 + virginiamycin (VIRG; 16.5 mg/kg feed) and diet 1 + ActiveMOS (MOS; 1.5 kg/T starter diet and 1 kg/T grower diet). Each treatment was assigned to 3 pen replicates (55 birds/pen). At day 14, 24 and 34, cecal contents were used for Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, E. coli and Campylobacter quantification whereas litter was analyzed for Campylobacter and E. coli. At same time points, jejunum samples were used in histological analysis. MOS significantly increased goblet cell number in the jejunum (p<0.05) at day 24 and 34. In contrast to the CTL and VIRG diet, MOS consistently increased cecal populations of Bifidobacteria (p<0.05) at all times. Moreover, at day 34, MOS increased cecal populations of Lactobacilli (p<0.05) and reduced E. coli and Campylobacter concentrations (p<0.05). None of the dietary treatments altered E. coli and Campylobacter concentrations in the litter. In comparison to antibiotics, MOS, therefore, improved intestinal health conditions by increasing goblet cell number into the villi membrane, stimulating growth of beneficial bacteria and reducing colonization by pathogenic bacteria.
  H Zhang , M Li , X Zheng , Y Sun , Z Wen and X. Zhao

In normal endometrium, stromal factors regulate the growth of epithelial cells. However, epithelial cells in endometriotic lesions display increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. This work tested the hypothesis that in endometriosis stromal cells lose the ability to regulate survival signaling and cell growth in epithelial cells. Primary normal, endometriotic eutopic and ectopic epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by normal, eutopic and ectopic endometriotic endometrial stromal cells. Endometriotic epithelial cells showed higher Survivin expression than normal epithelial cells. Conditioned medium (CM) from normal or eutopic endometriotic stromal cells significantly inhibited the Survivin expression and AKt phosphorylation in normal or eutopic endometriotic epithelial cells. However, CM from ectopic endometriotic stromal cells did not have an inhibitory effect on normal or ectopic endometriotic epithelial cells. Inhibition of AKt phosphorylation and Survivin expression in normal or eutopic endometriotic epithelial cells in the presence of stromal factors from normal or eutopic endometriotic stromal cells was enhanced by progesterone, whereas progesterone had little effect in the presence of stromal factors from ectopic endometriotic stromal cells. The inability of ectopic endometriotic stromal cells to regulated PI3K/AKt/Survivin signaling and mediate the progesterone response in endometriotic epithelial cells may facilitate epithelial cell proliferation in endometriosis and promote the survival of endometriotic lesions.

  S Atwell , C. G Brouillette , K Conners , S Emtage , T Gheyi , W. B Guggino , J Hendle , J. F Hunt , H. A Lewis , F Lu , I. I Protasevich , L. A Rodgers , R Romero , S. R Wasserman , P. C Weber , D Wetmore , F. F Zhang and X. Zhao

Upon removal of the regulatory insert (RI), the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be heterologously expressed and purified in a form that remains stable without solubilizing mutations, stabilizing agents or the regulatory extension (RE). This protein, NBD1 387–646(405–436), crystallizes as a homodimer with a head-to-tail association equivalent to the active conformation observed for NBDs from symmetric ATP transporters. The 1.7-Å resolution X-ray structure shows how ATP occupies the signature LSGGQ half-site in CFTR NBD1. The F508 version of this protein also crystallizes as a homodimer and differs from the wild-type structure only in the vicinity of the disease-causing F508 deletion. A slightly longer construct crystallizes as a monomer. Comparisons of the homodimer structure with this and previously published monomeric structures show that the main effect of ATP binding at the signature site is to order the residues immediately preceding the signature sequence, residues 542–547, in a conformation compatible with nucleotide binding. These residues likely interact with a transmembrane domain intracellular loop in the full-length CFTR channel. The experiments described here show that removing the RI from NBD1 converts it into a well-behaved protein amenable to biophysical studies yielding deeper insights into CFTR function.

  L Chen and X. Zhao

A crucial issue in asset pricing is to understand the relative importance of discount rate (DR) news and cash flow (CF) news in driving the time-series and cross-sectional variations of stock returns. Many studies directly estimate the DR news but back out the CF news as the residual. We argue that this approach has a serious limitation because the DR news cannot be accurately measured due to the small predictive power, and the CF news, as the residual, inherits the large misspecification error of the DR news. We apply this residual-based decomposition approach to Treasury bonds and equities and find results that are either counterintuitive or unrobust. Potential solutions, including modeling both DR news and CF news directly, the Bayesian model averaging approach, and the principal component analysis, are explored.

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