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Articles by X. Wang
Total Records ( 22 ) for X. Wang
  T Zhang , X Xu , L Shen , Y Feng , Z Yang , Y Shen , J Wang , W Jin and X. Wang

Overexpression of foreign proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs), which becomes the major bottleneck in the preparation of recombinant proteins and their applications. In the present study, 36 proteins from IBs were refolded using a simple refolding method. Refolding yields of these proteins were defined as the percentage of soluble proteins following dilution refolding in the amount of denatured proteins in the samples before diluting into refolding buffer. Furthermore, a mathematical model was deduced to evaluate the role of biochemical properties in the protein refolding. Our results indicated that under the experimental conditions, isoelectric point of proteins might be mostly contributing to the high efficacy of protein refolding since the increment of one unit resulted in a decrease of 14.83% in the refolding yield. Other important mediators were components of protein secondary structure and the molecular weight (R2 = 0.98, P = 0.000, F-test). Six proteins with low efficiency in the protein refolding possessed relatively low isoelectric points. Furthermore, refolding yields of six additional proteins from IBs were predicted and further validated by refolding the proteins under the same conditions. Therefore, the model of protein refolding developed here could be used to predict the refolding yields of proteins from IBs through a simple method. Our study will be suggestive to optimize the methods for protein refolding from IBs according to their intrinsic properties.

  Q Guo , S Shen , M Liao , P Lian and X. Wang

Colon cancer is a common malignant tumor that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated gene 6 (NGX6) is a novel candidate suppressor gene of tumor metastasis, which is down-regulated in colon cancer. This study was designed to investigate the roles of NGX6 on the growth and invasiveness of human colon cancer cell line, HT-29, and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of their action. Results showed that NGX6 could inhibit the invasiveness and extracellular matrix adhesion of HT-29 cells and restore the gap junctional intercellular communication of cells. Moreover, NGX6 could suppress the translocation of β-catenin from nucleus and cytoplasm to plasma membrane, inhibit the activity of TCF4 transcript factor, and down-regulate the expression of Wnt-direct-targeted genes c-myc, cyclin D1 and COX-2. We suggested that NGX6 inhibits cell invasion and adhesion through the suppression of Wnt signal pathway in colon cancer.

  S.G. Wang , J.K. Shi , X. Wang and G.J. Wang
  NeQuick ionospheric electron density model, which has been developed to version 2, produces the full electron density profile in the ionosphere. Each part of the profile is modeled using Epstein layer formalism. Simple empirical relations are used to compute the thicknesses of each layer. In order to validate the B2bot parameter in the NeQuick model during high solar activity, we use the data at Hainan, China (109.1°E, 19.5°N; Geomagnetic coordinates: 178.95°E, 8.1°N), measured with DPS-4, and study the diurnal and seasonal variations of B2bot, ΔB2 (B2best - B2NeQuick 2) and the seasonal median values of B2best/B2NeQuick 2 at that region. The results show that, (1) The differences between B2best and B2NeQuick 2 have diurnal and seasonal variations. (2) The diurnal variations of B2NeQuick 2 are smaller than those of B2best. (3) Generally, except for early morning the experimental values are properly reproduced. (4) Generally, during morning the NeQuick model has an underestimation. The magnitude of underestimation varies with LT and season.
  O.M. Pirog , N.M. Polekh , E.B. Romanova , S.V. Voeykov , G.A. Zherebtsov , J.K. Shi and X. Wang
  In this paper, the peculiarities of ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances observed at the decay and minimum of solar activity (SA) in the period 2004-2007 are investigated with respect to different geomagnetic conditions. Data from ionospheric stations and results of total electron content (TEC) measurements made at the network of GPS ground-based receivers located within the latitude-longitude sector (20-70°N, 90-160°E) are used in this study. Three groups of anomalous ionospheric response to geomagnetic disturbances have been observed during low solar activity. At daytime, the large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) could generally be related to the main phase of magnetic storm. Quasi-two-days wavelike disturbances (WLDs) have been also observed in the main phase independent of the geomagnetic storm intensity. Sharp electron density oscillations of short duration (OSD) occurred in the response to the onset of both main and recovery phases of the magnetic storm in the daytime at middle latitudes. A numerical model for ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling was used to interpret the occurrence of LS TIDs. Results showed that the LSTIDs might be associated with the unexpected lifting of F2 layer to the region with the lower recombination rate by reinforced meridional winds that produces the increase of the electron density in the F2 layer maximum.
  G.G. Sheng and X. Wang

This paper presents the report of an investigation into thermoelastic vibration and buckling characteristics of the functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical, where the functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical shell is made from a piezoelectric material having gradient change along the thickness, such as piezoelectricity and dielectric coefficient et al. Here, utilizing Hamilton’s principle and the Maxwell equation with a quadratic variation of the electric potential along the thickness direction of the cylindrical shells and the first-order shear deformation theory, and taking into account both the direct piezoelectric effect and the converse piezoelectric effect, the thermoelastic vibration and buckling characteristics of functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical shells composed of BaTiO3/PZT-4, BaTiO3/PZT-5A and BaTiO3/PVDF are, respectively, calculated. The effects of material composition (volume fraction exponent), thermal loading, external voltage applied and shell geometry parameters on the free vibration characteristics are described, and the axial critical load, critical temperature and critical control voltage are obtained.

  L Wang , J Zheng , Y Du , Y Huang , J Li , B Liu , C. j Liu , Y Zhu , Y Gao , Q Xu , W Kong and X. Wang

Rational: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) switching from a contractile/differentiated to a synthetic/dedifferentiated phenotype has an essential role in atherosclerosis, postangioplastic restenosis and hypertension. However, how normal VSMCs maintain the differentiated state is less understood.

Objective: We aimed to indentify the effect of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a normal vascular extracellular matrix, on modulation of VSMCs phenotype.

Methods and Results: We demonstrated that COMP was associated positively with the expression of VSMC differentiation marker genes during phenotype transition. Knockdown of COMP by small interfering (si)RNA favored dedifferentiation. Conversely, adenoviral overexpression of COMP markedly suppressed platelet-derived growth factor-BB-elicited VSMC dedifferentiation, characterized by altered VSMC morphology, actin fiber organization, focal adhesion assembly, and the expression of phenotype-dependent markers. Whereas 7 integrin coimmunoprecipitated with COMP in normal rat VSMCs and vessels, neutralizing antibody or siRNA against 7 integrin inhibited VSMC adhesion to COMP, which indicated that 7β1 integrin is a potential receptor for COMP. As well, blocking or interference by siRNA of 7 integrin completely abolished the effect of COMP on conserving the contractile phenotype. In accordance, ectopic adenoviral overexpression of COMP greatly retarded VSMC phenotype switching, rescued contractility of carotid artery ring, and inhibited neointima formation in balloon-injured rats.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that COMP is essential for maintaining a VSMC contractile phenotype and the protective effects of COMP are mainly mediated through interaction with 7β1 integrin. Investigations to identify the factors affecting the expression and integrity of COMP may provide a novel therapeutic target for vascular disorders.

  T. E Kimura , J Jin , M Zi , S Prehar , W Liu , D Oceandy , J. i Abe , L Neyses , A. H Weston , E. J Cartwright and X. Wang

Rationale: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways provide a critical connection between extrinsic and intrinsic signals to cardiac hypertrophy. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)5, an atypical MAPK is activated in the heart by pressure overload. However, the role of ERK5 plays in regulating hypertrophic growth and hypertrophy-induced apoptosis is not completely understood.

Objective: Herein, we investigate the in vivo role and signaling mechanism whereby ERK5 regulates cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophy-induced apoptosis.

Methods and Results: We generated and examined the phenotypes of mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of the erk5 gene (ERK5cko). In response to hypertrophic stress, ERK5cko mice developed less hypertrophic growth and fibrosis than controls. However, increased apoptosis together with upregulated expression levels of p53 and Bad were observed in the mutant hearts. Consistently, we found that silencing ERK5 expression or specific inhibition of its kinase activity using BIX02189 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) reduced myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2 transcriptional activity and blunted hypertrophic responses. Furthermore, the inhibition of MEF2 activity in NRCMs using a non-DNA binding mutant form of MEF2 was found to attenuate the ERK5-regulated hypertrophic response.

Conclusions: These results reveal an important function of ERK5 in cardiac hypertrophic remodeling and cardiomyocyte survival. The role of ERK5 in hypertrophic remodeling is likely to be mediated via the regulation of MEF2 activity.

  W Li , W Zou , D Zhao , J Yan , Z Zhu , J Lu and X. Wang
  Weida Li, Wei Zou, Dongfeng Zhao, Jiacong Yan, Zuoyan Zhu, Jing Lu, and Xiaochen Wang

During apoptosis, dying cells are quickly internalized by neighboring cells or phagocytes, and are enclosed in phagosomes that undergo a maturation process to generate the phagoslysosome, in which cell corpses are eventually degraded. It is not well understood how apoptotic cell degradation is regulated. Here we report the identification and characterization of the C. elegans tbc-2 gene, which is required for the efficient degradation of cell corpses. tbc-2 encodes a Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) and its loss of function affects several events of phagosome maturation, including RAB-5 release, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate dynamics, phagosomal acidification, RAB-7 recruitment and lysosome incorporation, which leads to many persistent cell corpses at various developmental stages. Intriguingly, the persistent cell corpse phenotype of tbc-2 mutants can be suppressed by reducing gene expression of rab-5, and overexpression of a GTP-locked RAB-5 caused similar defects in phagosome maturation and cell corpse degradation. We propose that TBC-2 functions as a GAP to cycle RAB-5 from an active GTP-bound to an inactive GDP-bound state, which is...

  L. Chen , Q. Li , Z. Yang , Z. Ye , Y. Huang , M. He , J. Wen , X. Wang , B. Lu , J. Hu , C. Liu , C. Ling , S. Qu and R. Hu
  Aim  To assess the relationship between serum total osteocalcin and measurements of adiposity, glucose tolerance, lipid profile, adipokine and chronic low-grade inflammation in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.

Methods  We performed a cross-sectional community-based study in central Shanghai. Serum total osteocalcin was measured by radioimmunoassay in 783 men and 946 post-menopausal women. Their associations with measurements of adiposity, glucose tolerance, lipid profile and chronic low-grade inflammation were examined.

Results  Serum total osteocalcin levels revealed a sexual dimorphism, with post-menopausal women having significantly higher levels than men (< 0.001). Serum osteocalcin levels of participants with self-reported cardiovascular disease were significantly lower (= 0.044) than those without. In men, serum osteocalcin levels of participants with the metabolic syndrome were significantly lower than those without the metabolic syndrome (= 0.036). Serum osteocalcin correlated negatively with fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and positively with homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function in both men and post-menopausal women (all < 0.05). In men, serum osteocalcin correlated negatively with BMI, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test glucose after adjustment for age (all < 0.05). In post-menopausal women, serum osteocalcin correlated negatively with waist-hip ratio, LDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein, and positively with adiponectin (all < 0.05). Serum osteocalcin was not associated with CXC chemokine ligand 5 level (> 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase was an independent predictor of serum osteocalcin in both men and post-menopausal women (both < 0.001). Adiponectin was an independent predictor of serum osteocalcin in post-menopausal women (= 0.011). Serum osteocalcin was an independent predictor of homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function in both genders (both < 0.05).


  A. K Pandey , X Yin , R. B Schiffer , J. C Hutson , D. M Stocco , P Grammas and X. Wang

Recent studies suggested an involvement of thromboxane A2 in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent inhibition of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene expression. The present study further investigated the role of thromboxane A2 receptor in StAR gene expression and steroidogenesis in testicular Leydig cells. The thromboxane A2 receptor was detected in several Leydig cell lines. Blocking thromboxane A2 binding to the receptor using specific antagonist SQ29548 or BM567 resulted in dose-dependent increases in StAR protein and steroid production in MA-10 mouse Leydig cells. The results were confirmed with Leydig cells isolated from rats. StAR promoter activity and StAR mRNA level in the cells were also increased after the treatments, suggesting an involvement of the thromboxane A2 receptor in StAR gene transcription. Furthermore study indicated that blocking the thromboxane A2 receptor reduced dosage sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 protein, a transcriptional repressor of StAR gene expression. Specific binding of the antagonists to the receptors on cellular membrane was demonstrated by binding assays using 3H-SQ29548 and binding competition between 3H-SQ29548 and BM567. Whereas SQ29548 enhanced cAMP-induced StAR gene expression, in the absence of cAMP, it was unable to increase StAR protein and steroidogenesis. However, when the receptor was blocked by the antagonist, subthreshold levels of cAMP were able to induce maximal levels of StAR protein expression, suggesting that blocking the thromboxane A2 receptor increase sensitivity of MA-10 cells to cAMP stimulation. Taken together, the results from the present and previous studies suggest an autocrine loop, involving cyclooxygenase-2, thromboxane A synthase, and thromboxane A2 and its receptor, in cyclooxygenase-2-dependent inhibition of StAR gene expression.

  K Gruffydd Jones , J Richman , R. C. M Jones and X. Wang

Background. A variety of individual therapeutic interventions have been shown to reduce hospital admissions and improve quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a paucity of data of looking at the effect of case management in primary care (i.e. using an integrated care approach) of people at higher risk of mortality from COPD.

Objective. To examine the effect of case management in primary care of patients with COPD at high risk of hospital admission, identified using a novel multidimensional index of disease severity (DOSE index).

Methods. Observational pilot study in a single general practice. High-risk patients were identified using the DOSE index and case managed using an IT system according to British National Guidelines over a 6-month period.

Results. Eleven patients entered and completed the study. There was no improvement in health status, but there was a non-significant reduction in total hospital admissions (three versus zero) and total bed days (16 versus 0) compared to the same reference period in the previous year. There was an increase in self-management knowledge.

Conclusions. Case management of high-risk patients in primary care may reduce hospital admissions. This needs to be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  B. K Seo , K Lee and X. Wang

This article investigates longitudinal changes in the relative performance of business groups utilizing data on listed companies in China over a 10-year period (1994–2003). Using a measure of firm value in the stock market and panel regression methods, this article finds the initially superior and eventually worsening performance of group-affiliated firms compared with stand-alone firms. To explain the downward performance, this article considers several alternative hypotheses, namely, institutional development, increasing competition, diversification discount, agency costs from state-ownership, and agents asset diversion behavior. This article has found certain differences in the explanatory power of each hypothesis. While the institutional development hypothesis is somewhat weak, the increasing discount for unrelated diversification as well as serious agency costs revealed in asset diversion in the business groups can better explain the longitudinal decrease in the performance of business groups. We find that while diversification still creates values, its marginal contribution has decreased over time, and that while the state-ownership variable negatively affects the values of firms in general, it is not the cause of the worsening valuation of business groups.

  X. Wang , Zhenzhou Ji , Chen Fu and Mingzeng Hu
  In this study, we give a review of the current Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM) systems for Multicore processors. Hardware transactional memory systems are classified into the following three categories: how to perform version management and conflict detection, whether to support unbounded transactional memory and whether to support transactions nesting. Finally, we discussed two active research challenges: the relationship between transactional memory and Input/Output operations and Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) supporting.
  X. Wang , Z. Ji , C. Fu and M. Hu
  To develop composable parallel programs easily and get high performance, many transactional memory systems have been proposed to solve the synchronization problem of multicore processors. Transactional memory can be implemented in hardware, software, or a hybrid of the two. There are many hot topics in current transactional memory systems. In this study, we give a review of the current transactional memory systems for multicore processors according to the following aspects: version management, conflict detection and contention management. Then we separately present exclusive research area for hardware and software transactional memory. Finally, we separately discuss research challenges for software and hardware transactional memory.
  X. Wang , B. Zhou and W. Li
  Memcached is a general-purpose distributed memory caching system that was originally developed by Danga Interactive for Live Journal but is now used by many other sites and It is thought to be one of the most effective solutions to speed up dynamic database-driven websites by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times that an external data source must be read. Memcached system uses a client-server architecture, it provides its standard memcached protocol to support any types of programming languages. The memcached protocol is simple and very efficient, while it doesn’t support big data objects very well. In this study, the memcached systems were firstly illustrated and then a detailed introduction was provided for the memcached protocol and then the issues of the stock protocol were specified. After that, a new streaming protocol was illustrated which was well designed for big data objects and could be easily integrated into original memcached protocols. Finally, some experiments were done to evaluate the new streaming protocol and finally the new protocol was proved to be very efficient for big data objects storage and it explored new application fields for memcached.
  W. Li , G. Wang , X. Wang and S. Li
  The scheduling algorithm for optimistic replication is important, because it has an extreme effect on replication performance. However, most of the scheduling algorithms are designed for a conventional hard disk device with mechanical disk arms. It may be inefficient when the flash memory which possesses both a higher read/write performance and random access rate is equipped. This study proposed a new flash memory-based scheduling algorithm for optimistic replication: FBSA. It parallelized the write requests on the slave node according to the semantic dependency, thus, full drove the flash memory and improved replication performance. The FBSA was fully implemented under a popular open-source DBMS-MySQL and was proved to show dramatic performance improvement compared with the original scheduling algorithm based on the same hardware and software configurations.
  D Steverding and X. Wang
  No Description
  X. Zhang , X. Wang , B. Wang , T. Sugi and M. Nakamura
  The onset detection of muscle activation is an essential issue in electromyogram (EMG) control. In this paper, a novel approach based on EMG power with automatic adaptive threshold is proposed to address this issue. The purpose is to develop an effective EMG-controlled meal assistance robot. Taking into account the individual difference such as contraction power and resting power, the threshold of onset detection is set with respect to the latest EMG signal. The results show the method is able to adjust automatically to avoid false alarms, and works well when the contraction power varies. Implementation of this EMG-controlled meal assistance robot may provide limb-deficient patients with an effective and comfortable human-machine assistance interface.
  M.X. Wang , L.S. Wang , G.H. Yue , X. Wang , P.X. Yan and D.L. Peng
  A solventothermal reaction route has been developed to prepare chalcopyrite phase CuFeS2 nanowires with a diameter of about 50 nm and a length up to several micrometers at 150–220 °C. The phase, morphology, composition and purity of the products have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectra methods, respectively. The 57Fe Mossbauer spectrum exhibits a six-peak hyperfine magnetic spectrum and a like-splitted line non-magnetic peak. Ethylenediamine played an important role in the formation of the ternary sulfides. A mechanism is proposed to explain the chemical reactions.
  C Jiang , H Zhang , W Zhang , W Kong , Y Zhu , Q Xu , Y Li and X. Wang

Adipokines may represent a mechanism linking insulin resistance to cardiovascular disease. We showed previously that homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, can induce the expression and secretion of resistin, a novel adipokine, in vivo and in vitro. Since vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is a key event in vascular disease, we hypothesized that adipocyte-derived resistin is involved in Hcy-induced VSMC migration. To confirm our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rat aortic SMCs were cocultured with Hcy-stimulated primary rat epididymal adipocytes or treated directly with increasing concentrations of resistin for up to 24 h. Migration of VSMCs was investigated. Cytoskeletal structure and cytoskeleton-related proteins were also detected. The results showed that Hcy (300–500 µM) increased migration significantly in VSMCs cocultured with adipocytes but not in VSMC cultured alone. Resistin alone also significantly increased VSMC migration in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Resistin small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly attenuated VSMC migration in the coculture system, which indicated that adipocyte-derived resistin mediates Hcy-induced VSMC migration. On cell spreading assay, resistin induced the formation of focal adhesions near the plasma membrane, which suggests cytoskeletal rearrangement via an 5β1-integrin-focal adhesion kinase/paxillin-Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) pathway. Our data demonstrate that Hcy promotes VSMC migration through a paracrine or endocrine effect of adipocyte-derived resistin, which provides further evidence of the adipose-vascular interaction in metabolic disorders. The migratory action exerted by resistin on VSMCs may account in part for the increased incidence of restenosis in diabetic patients.

  S Zheng , W Li , M Xu , X Bai , Z Zhou , J Han , J. Y. J Shyy and X. Wang

Ischemia induces angiogenesis as a compensatory response. Although ischemia is known to causes synthesis and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), it is not clear whether CGRP regulates angiogenesis under ischemia and how does it function. Thus we investigated the role of CGRP in angiogenesis and the involved mechanisms. We found that CGRP level was increased in the rat hindlimb ischemic tissue. The expression of exogenous CGRP by adenovirus vectors enhanced blood flow recovery and increased capillary density in ischemic hindlimbs. In vitro, CGRP promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation and migration. Further more, CGRP activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both in vivo and in vitro, and pharmacological inhibition of CGRP and cAMP attenuated the CGRP-activated AMPK in vitro. CGRP also induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in HUVECs at Ser1177 and Ser633 in a time-dependent manner, and such effects were abolished by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. As well, Compound C blocked CGRP-enhanced HUVEC tube formation and migration. These findings indicate that CGRP promotes angiogenesis by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway in endothelial cells.

  C. Liu , X. Wang , Z. Chen , L. Zhang , Y. Wu and Y. Zhang

Background: The effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on insulin signaling remain unclear. We observed changes in insulin secretion and signal protein expression during the early steps in insulin signaling after hepatic I/R in rats.

Materials and Methods: Eighty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into an I/R group and a control (C) group. After we exposed the hepatic hilum, ischemia was induced by clamping the hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 minutes and then the liver was reperfused for 2 hours in the I/R group; a show procedure was done in the C group. Blood samples were obtained after exposure of the hepatic hilum (T1) and 2 hours after reperfusion in the I/R group (T2) and 2.5 hours after T1 in the C group (T2). We measured glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. We determined the expressions of insulin signaling proteins, including insulin receptor (IR) β unit (IR β), IR substrate 1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, and P85 in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins in liver and skeletal muscle.

Results: Plasma glucose concentrations increased in both groups at T2 (P < .01) and were higher in the I/R group (P < .01). Insulin concentrations in the I/R group did not change significantly at T2. Insulin concentrations at T2 were higher than those at T1 in the C group (P < .05). Expressions of insulin signal proteins showed no significant difference between the 2 groups; however, tyrosine phosphorylation of IR β, IRS-1, IRS-2, and the interactions between IRS-1 in skeletal muscle or IRS-2 in liver and PI3K were significantly lower in the I/R group than the C group.

Conclusion: Hepatic I/R inhibited insulin secretion and induced insulin resistance via down-regulation during the early steps in insulin signaling in rats.
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