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Articles by X. WU
Total Records ( 13 ) for X. WU
  H. LIU , X. WU , W. ZHAO , M. XUE , L. GUO , Y. YU and Y. ZHENG
  Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter (ADCd), crude protein (ADCp), energy (ADCe) and amino acids in selected feedstuffs were determined for juvenile Siberian sturgeon (8.38±0.20g). The tested feedstuffs were fishmeal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal, hydrolysed feather meal, fermented feather meal solvent-extracted cottonseed meal and soybean meal. ADCs were determined using a reference diet and test diets at 7:3 ratios with 5gkg-1 chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an inert marker. Fish were reared in a recirculating system and fed to apparent satiation five times daily. Cr2O3 in diets and faeces samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and acid-digestion colorimetry (AC) methods, respectively. The results showed that ICP-AES method was more accurate for Cr2O3 determination than AC method, and the results determined by ICP-AES method were used in this study. ADCd and ADCp of seven tested ingredients were lowest for MBM (59.1 and 84.5%) and highest for FM (79.9 and 94.5%); ADCe of tested ingredients were from 71.8% for SECM to 93.2% for FM. ADCs of amino acid in test ingredients followed similar trend to the ADCp. The ADCs of individual amino acids varied from 61.6% (histidine in MBM) to 98.8% (valine in FM).
  H. ZHAO , R. JIANG , M. XUE , S. XIE , X. WU and L. GUO
  An 8-week growth trial was conducted to determine the effects of complete replacement of fishmeal protein by soy protein concentrate (SPC) on growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus GIFT strain) fry (initial body weight 1.6 ± 0.0 g). In control diet, 135 g kg-1 fishmeal was used, and in the other two diets, 100% of fishmeal was replaced by SPC supplemented with or without methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) according to the content in FM diet. Fish of FM group were fed twice daily. Fish of SPC6 group were fed SPC diet six times daily. Fish of SPCM group were fed twice (SPCM2) or six times (SPCM6) daily. The results showed that complete replacement of fishmeal with SPC did not affect survival, condition factor, visceralsomatic index of Nile tilapia. Feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish in SPCM2 and SPC6 groups were higher than those in FM and SPCM6 groups. Specific growth rate (SGR) of fish in SPCM6 group was highest among four treatments. Productive protein value (PPV) of SPCM2 and SPC6 groups were significantly lower than that of FM group. Fishmeal could be completely replaced by SPC without negative effect on growth by MHA supplementation and increasing feeding frequency.
  S. K Kumanyika , T. A Wadden , J Shults , J. E Fassbender , S. D Brown , M. A Bowman , V Brake , W West , J Frazier , M. C Whitt Glover , M. J Kallan , E Desnouee and X. Wu

Background  Family and friend participation may provide culturally salient social support for weight loss in African American adults.

Methods  SHARE (Supporting Healthy Activity and eating Right Everyday) was a 2-year trial of a culturally specific weight loss program. African American women and men who enrolled alone (individual stratum, 63 index participants) or together with 1 or 2 family members or friends (family stratum, 130 index participants) were randomized, within strata, to high or low social support treatments; 90% were female.

Results  At 6 months, the family index participants lost approximately 5 to 6 kg; the individual index participants lost approximately 3 to 4 kg. The mean weight change was not different in high vs low social support in either stratum and generally not when high or low support treatments were compared across strata. The overall intention-to-treat mean weight change at 24 months was –2.4 kg (95% confidence interval, –3.3 kg to –1.5 kg). The family index participant weight loss was greater among the participants whose partners attended more personally tailored counseling sessions at 6 months in the high-support group and at 6, 12, and 24 months in the low-support group (all P < .05). Also, in the 6-month intention-to-treat analysis, the percentage of weight loss of the family index participants was greater if partners lost at least 5% vs less than 5% of their baseline weight (respectively, –6.1% vs –2.9% [P = .004], high support; and –6.1% vs –3.1% [P = .01], low support).

Conclusions  Being assigned to participate with family members, friends, or other group members had no effect on weight change. Enrolling with others was associated with greater weight loss only when partners participated more and lost more weight.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00146081

  J Lin , J Wang , A. J Greisinger , H. B Grossman , M. R Forman , C. P Dinney , E. T Hawk and X. Wu

We evaluated the association between energy balance and risk of bladder cancer and assessed the joint effects of genetic variants in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway genes with energy balance. The study included 803 Caucasian bladder cancer patients and 803 healthy Caucasian controls matched to cases by age (±5 years) and gender. High energy intake [odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.23-2.09] and low physical activity (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.10-3.79) were each associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer with dose-response pattern (Ptrend < 0.001). However, obesity (body mass index, ≥30) was not associated with the risk. Among 222 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in six genes of mTOR pathway were significantly associated with the risk. Further, the risk associated with high energy intake and low physical activity was only observed among subjects carrying a high number of unfavorable genotypes in the pathway. Moreover, when physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants were analyzed jointly, the study population was clearly stratified into a range of low- to high-risk subgroups as defined energy balance status. Compared with subjects within the most favorable energy balance category (low energy intake, intensive physical activity, low number of unfavorable genotypes), subjects in the worst energy balance category (high energy intake, low physical activity, and carrying ≥7 unfavorable genotypes) had 21.93-fold increased risk (95% CI, 6.7-71.77). Our results provide the first strong evidence that physical activity, energy intake, and genetic variants in the mTOR pathway jointly influence bladder cancer susceptibility and that these results have implications for bladder cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 505–17. ©2010 AACR.

  M Chen , M. A. T Hildebrandt , J Clague , A. M Kamat , A Picornell , J Chang , X Zhang , J Izzo , H Yang , J Lin , J Gu , S Chanock , M Kogevinas , N Rothman , D. T Silverman , M Garcia Closas , H. B Grossman , C. P Dinney , N Malats and X. Wu

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway genetic variations may affect bladder cancer risk and clinical outcomes. Therefore, we genotyped 177 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 Shh pathway genes in a study including 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 controls. We assessed SNP associations with cancer risk and clinical outcomes in 419 cases of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 318 cases of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (MiMBC). Only three SNPs (GLI3 rs3823720, rs3735361, and rs10951671) reached nominal significance in association with risk (P ≤ 0.05), which became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Nine SNPs reached a nominally significant individual association with recurrence of NMIBC in patients who received transurethral resection (TUR) only (P ≤ 0.05), of which two (SHH rs1233560 and GLI2 rs11685068) were replicated independently in 356 TUR-only NMIBC patients, with P values of 1.0 x 10–3 (SHH rs1233560) and 1.3 x 10–3 (GLI2 rs11685068). Nine SNPs also reached a nominally significant individual association with clinical outcome of NMIBC patients who received Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG; P ≤ 0.05), of which two, the independent GLI3 variants rs6463089 and rs3801192, remained significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (P = 2 x 10–4 and 9 x 10–4, respectively). The wild-type genotype of either of these SNPs was associated with a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence-free survival (versus the variants). Although three SNPs (GLI2 rs735557, GLI2 rs4848632, and SHH rs208684) showed nominal significance in association with overall survival in MiMBC patients (P ≤ 0.05), none remained significant after multiple-comparison adjustments. Germ-line genetic variations in the Shh pathway predicted clinical outcomes of TUR and BCG for NMIBC patients. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1235–45. ©2010 AACR.

  M Chen , A Cassidy , J Gu , G. L Delclos , F Zhen , H Yang , M. A.T Hildebrandt , J Lin , Y Ye , R. M Chamberlain , C. P Dinney and X. Wu

Genetic variations in phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway may affect critical cellular functions and increase an individual's cancer risk. We systematically evaluate 231 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes in the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway as predictors of bladder cancer risk. In individual SNP analysis, four SNPs in regulatory associated protein of mTOR (RAPTOR) remained significant after correcting for multiple testing: rs11653499 [odds ratio (OR): 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–2.60, P = 0.002], rs7211818 (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.35–3.36, P = 0.001), rs7212142 (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19–2.07, P = 0.002) and rs9674559 (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.31–3.21, P = 0.002), among which rs7211818 and rs9674559 are within the same haplotype block. In haplotype analysis, compared with the most common haplotypes, haplotype containing the rs7212142 wild-type allele showed a protective effect of bladder cancer (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.97). In contrast, the haplotype containing the rs7211818 variant allele showed a 1.32-fold elevated bladder cancer risk (95% CI: 1.09–1.60). In combined analysis of three independent significant RAPTOR SNPs (rs11653499, rs7211818 and rs7212142), a significant trend was observed for increased risk with an increase in the number of unfavorable genotypes (P for trend <0.001). Compared with the subjects without any of the unfavorable genotypes, those carrying all three unfavorable genotypes showed a 2.22-fold (95% CI: 1.33–3.71) increased bladder cancer risk. This is the first study to evaluate the role of germ line genetic variations in PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway as cancer susceptibility factors that will help us identify high-risk individuals for bladder cancer.

  M Chen , J Gu , G. L Delclos , A. M Killary , Z Fan , M. A. T Hildebrandt , R. M Chamberlain , H. B Grossman , C. P Dinney and X. Wu

The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)–AKT– mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is an important cellular pathway controlling cell growth, tumorigenesis, cell invasion and drug response. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway may affect the survival in muscle invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (MiM-BC) patients. We conducted a follow-up study of 319 MiM-BC patients to systematically evaluate 289 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 20 genes in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway as predicators of survival. In multivariate Cox regression, AKT2 rs3730050, PIK3R1 rs10515074 and RAPTOR rs9906827 were significantly associated with survival. In combined analysis, we found a cumulative effect of these three SNPs on survival. With the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, there was a significant trend of higher risk of death in multivariate Cox regression (P for trend <0.001) and shorter median survival time in Kaplan–Meier estimates (P log rank <0.001). This is the first study to evaluate the role of germ line genetic variations in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR pathway genes as predictors of MiM-BC clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further replication in independent populations and may provide information on disease management and development of target therapies.

  J Wang , S. M Lippman , J. J Lee , H Yang , F. R Khuri , E Kim , J Lin , D. W Chang , R Lotan , W. K Hong and X. Wu

Curatively treated patients with early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are at high risks for second primary tumor (SPT) and recurrence. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) is important in essential signaling transduction and cellular activities. We hypothesize that genetic variations of RGS may modulate the risk of SPT/recurrence in patients with early-stage HNSCC. In a nested case–control study, we evaluated 98 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 RGS genes for the risk of SPT/recurrence among 450 HNSCC patients. Eight SNPs showed significant associations with the risk of SPT/recurrence, with the most significant one of rs2179653, which is located in the 5'-flanking region of RGS2 gene. Under a recessive genetic model, the homozygous variant genotype of this SNP was associated with 2.95-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52–5.74] increased risk of SPT/recurrence. This association remained significant after the adjustment for multiple comparisons. Cumulative effects analysis revealed that the risk increased significantly with the increasing numbers of unfavorable genotypes. Compared with subjects carrying 0–2 unfavorable genotypes, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for those carrying 3 or 4+ were 1.73 (1.10–2.70) and 3.05 (1.92–4.83), respectively. Furthermore, survival tree analysis revealed potential higher order gene–gene interactions and indicated different outcomes based on distinct genotype profiles. Genetic variations of RGS genes may modulate the susceptibility to SPT/recurrence in early-stage HNSCC patients individually and cumulatively. Our results stressed the importance of taking a polygenic approach to evaluate the cumulative and interaction effects of genetic variations in the prediction of cancer risk and prognosis.

  J Lin , Y Horikawa , P Tamboli , J Clague , C. G Wood and X. Wu

We took a polygenic approach to evaluate the effects of 41 potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNAs)-related genes on survival and recurrence among renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. During a median follow-up of 21.8 months, among 316 RCC patients, 64 died and 56 developed recurrence. In single-SNP analysis, we identified seven SNPs significantly associated with RCC survival and five SNPs with recurrence. The most significant associations were SNPs in GEMIN4 with the variant alleles of both rs7813 and rs910925 associated with 1.74-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–2.62] increased risk of death, whereas the variant allele of rs3744741 conferred a decreased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.77]. Several SNPs belonging to the pre-miRNA and were identified to be significantly associated with RCC recurrence. Haplotypes of DICER and DROSHA were also associated with altered patient survival and recurrence. More importantly, we observed cumulative effects of multiple SNPs on RCC survival. Compared with subjects carrying zero to two unfavorable genotypes, those carrying three to five and six and more unfavorable genotypes had an increased risk of death with a HR of 2.49 (95% CI = 1.24–5.00) and 6.66 (95% CI = 2.49–17.86), respectively, with significant dose–response trend (P for trend<0.001). As the first study of miRNA-related genetic polymorphisms on RCC clinical outcome, our results strongly suggested that miRNA-related SNPs may impact the recurrence and survival in RCC patients. Future investigation in larger populations and functional characterizations are necessary to validate these results.

  X Zhang , H Yang , J. J Lee , E Kim , S. M Lippman , F. R Khuri , M. R Spitz , R Lotan , W. K Hong and X. Wu

Second primary tumor (SPT) and/or recurrence negatively impact the prognosis of patients with curatively treated early-stage head and neck cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer development. We explored whether the variations of miRNA-related pathway were associated with the risk of SPT/recurrence in patients with early-stage head and neck cancer. This study includes 150 early-stage head and neck cancer patients with SPT/recurrence and 300 patients without SPT/recurrence. Two hundred and thirty-five tagging and potentially functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped from eight miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and 135 miRNA-targeted genes. Eighteen miRNA-related SNPs were significantly associated with the risk of SPT/recurrence. The most significant SNP was rs3747238, a miRNA-binding site SNP in SMC1B. The variant homozygous genotype of this SNP was associated with a 1.74-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–2.54; P = 0.004]. Cumulative effect analysis showed joint effects for the number of unfavorable genotype in patients. Survival tree analysis further identified the high-order gene–gene interactions and categorized the study subjects into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. Patients in the high-risk group had a 4.84-fold increased risk (95% CI: 3.11–7.51; P = 2.45 x 10–12) and a shorter event-free median survival time of 37.9 months (log rank P = 2.28 x 10–13). Our results suggested that miRNA-related genetic polymorphisms may be used individually and jointly to predict the risk of SPT/recurrence of early-stage head and neck cancer patients.

  J. M. Pauli , N. Raja-Khan , X. Wu and R. S. Legro
  Aims  To review the relationship between insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Methods  A literature review.

Results  Insulin resistance likely plays a central pathogenic role in polycystic ovary syndrome and may explain the pleiotropic presentation and involvement of multiple organ systems. Insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome involves both intrinsic and acquired defects in insulin signalling. The cellular insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome has been further shown to involve a novel post-binding defect in insulin signal transduction. Treatment of insulin resistance through lifestyle therapy or with a diabetes drug has become mainstream therapy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, effects with current pharmacologic treatment with metformin tend to be modest, with limited benefit as an agent to treat infertility. Insulin resistance contributes to increased risk for pregnancy complications, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk profile in polycystic ovary syndrome, which is further exacerbated by obesity. While numerous studies demonstrate increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, there are limited data showing that women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease events.

Conclusions  Insulin resistance is linked to polycystic ovary syndrome. Further study of lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions that reduce insulin resistance, such as metformin, are needed to demonstrate that they are effective in reducing the risk of diabetes, endometrial abnormalities and cardiovascular disease events in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  X. Wu , X.B. Zhang , L.L. Zhu , Y.S. Tan and X.M. Tang
  The Ubiquitin-proteasome system is an essential mechanism for protein degradation in eukaryotes and ubiquitin-specific proteases are key effectors of the Ubiquitin-proteasome system. About 5 porcine USP genes (14, 16, 38, 44 and 54) were isolated and shared high sequence similarity with their human homologues genes. Then, the tissue expression pattern of 5 porcine USP genes were analysed by RT-PCR in 2 breeds (a domestic breed and a foreign breed) and the results showed that USP 14, 16, 38 and 54 gene expression were higher in muscle tissue. In addition, researchers mapped the 5 porcine genes and all chromosomes assignments were consistent with known chromosomal homologies between human and pig. All results provided a basis for further function study of these 5 USP genes.
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