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Articles by X. Shen
Total Records ( 2 ) for X. Shen
  Y. Saito , X. Shen , K. Mishima and M. Matsubayashi

Dynamic behavior of a two-phase bubble, i.e. a steam bubble containing a droplet evaporating in the bubble, in the molten alloy was clearly visualized using high-frame-rate neutron radiography. In relation to some direct contact heat exchanger design with molten lead–bismuth (Pb–Bi), experiments have been done at JRR-3M of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) with water droplets evaporating in a stable thermally stratified Newton's alloy pool. The instantaneous shape and size of the bubble has been iteratively estimated from the void fraction distributions and total void volume by assuming a symmetrical bubble shape.

  B Chen , D Guan , Z. J Cui , X Wang and X. Shen

To know whether thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) works for an antioxidant defense mechanism in atherosclerosis, the effect of Trx1 on the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a potent chemoattractant for recruitment and accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in the intima of artery vessel, was investigated in human endothelial-like EA.hy 926 cells. It was found that overexpression of Trx1 suppressed, whereas knockdown of endogenous Trx1 enhanced, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated MCP-1 release and expression in the cells. It was also observed that overexpression of Trx1 suppressed, whereas depletion of endogenous Trx1 greatly promoted, nuclear translocation of c-Jun and the redox factor-1 (Ref-1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed significantly reduced DNA-binding activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) in Trx1-overexpressing cells but apparently enhanced DNA binding activity of AP-1 in Trx1-knockdown cells, indicating that nuclear Ref-1 rather than Trx1 itself finally dominates the regulation of AP-1 activity, although Trx1 is considered to upregulate AP-1 activity. It was also observed that Trx1 depressed intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, suppressed MCP-1 secretion, whereas transient expression of Nox1 enhanced transcription of MCP-1 in endothelial cells. Assays with AP-1 and MCP-1 luciferase reporters further demonstrated that transient expression of Trx1 significantly depressed the transcriptional activity of c-Jun/c-Fos and consequent MCP-1 transcription. This study suggests that Trx1 inherently suppresses MCP-1 expression in vascular endothelium and may prevent atherosclerosis by depressing MCP-1 release. Besides the suppression of intracellular ROS generation, the inhibition of nuclear translocation of AP-1 and Ref-1 are mainly responsible for the downregulation of MCP-1 by Trx1.

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