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Articles by X. Liu
Total Records ( 9 ) for X. Liu
  Y Chang , H Zheng , Y Shang , Y Jin , G Wang , X Shen and X. Liu

The prototypic foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown more than a century ago to be the first filterable agent capable of causing FMD, and it has served as an important model for studying basic principles of Aphthovirus molecular biology. However, the complex structure and antigenic diversity of FMDV have posed a major obstacle to the attempts at manipulating the infectious virus by reverse genetic techniques. Here, we report the recovery of infectious FMDV from cDNAs based on an efficient in vivo RNA polymerase I (polI) transcription system. Intracellular transcription of the full-length viral genome from polI-based vectors resulted in efficient formation of infectious virus displaying a genetic marker. Compared with wild-type virus, an abundance of genomic mRNA and elevated expression levels of viral antigens were indicative of the hyperfunction throughout the life-cycle of this cDNA-derived virus at transcription, replication, and translation levels. The technology described here could be an extremely valuable molecular biology tool for studying FMDV complex infectious characteristics. It is an operating platform for studying FMDV functional genomics, molecular mechanism of pathogenicity and variation, and lays a solid foundation for the development of viral chimeras toward the prospect of a genetically engineered vaccine.

  Y. Liu , X.X. Pan , G.H. Li , X. Liu and L.X. Jiang
  Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the network coefficients of thermal network model describing the radiation heat transfer among satellite surfaces is solved by considering the surface material optical characters. It is superiority to the conventional Gebhart’s method in view of the grey body and the diffuse reflection assumptions. The zone leveling method is used to discrete the governing equations and the solar absorpivity is separated and considered to be an important correction parameter. Effects of the solar incidence round angle, the zenith angle and the ratio of absorpivity to emissivity (RAE) on temperature distribution are numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The higher or the lower the RAE may be lead to the alternative heating and cooling tend with a larger heating or cooling velocity of main body surfaces than the solar array surfaces. Furthermore, maximum temperature of main body is almost larger than solar arrays. Under the same RAE, solar incidence angle make a great effect on the uniform character of temperature distribution.
  H. Yang , Y. Wei , X. Gao , X. Xu , L. Fan , J. He , Y. Hu , X. Liu , X. Chen , Z. Yang and C. Zhang
  Aims  To determine the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in China and to further identify population specific risk factors for GDM.

Methods  Following a universal GDM screening recommendation, 16 286 pregnant women who underwent a 50-g glucose challenge test from 18 cities in China were followed up through pregnancy. GDM was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance test according to American Diabetes Association criteria.

Results  The incidence of GDM was 4.3%. Previously reported risk factors for GDM, including advanced maternal age, pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes, were strongly associated with an elevated GDM risk. Moreover, after the adjustment for the above-mentioned risk factors, a history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, residency in south China and a history of spontaneous abortion were significantly associated with an increased GDM risk; adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] were 1.97 (1.39, 2.80), 1.84 (1.59-2.13), and 1.46 (1.12, 1.91), respectively.

Conclusions  In this large study of GDM in Chinese women, advanced maternal age, pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and family history of diabetes were confirmed to be risk factors. In addition, a history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or spontaneous abortion and residency in south China appeared to be novel risk factors in this population.

  C. Chang , L. Gao , H. Kou , X. Liu , Z. Qin and G. Xu
  An integrity batch report protocol based on the waiting stack is proposed, which aims at solving the bottleneck problem of the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) signature of integrity report. In the protocol, integrity attestation requests are placed sequentially in a waiting stack with constant head part and varying length. The TPM processes the integrity batch report one after another and thus the flexibility problem of trusted gateway can be solved efficiently. This study also proposes a data compressing method based on the Merkle tree to reduce the communication complexity in processing integrity batch report. The length of fresh number connection string transferred to the challenger can be compressed from mx20 bytes to log2mx20 bytes. The laboratory result indicates that the responding capacity of gateway adopting integrity batch report protocol is prior to adopting TCG integrity report protocol and the processing capacity of gateway can be improved from 1~3.3 to 32~256 times per second.
  L. Zhang , Y. Luo , J. Hu , J. Wang , X. Liu and H. Pan
  CAPNS1 also known as CAPN4, encodes the small subunit of CAPN1 and CAPN2 which is required to maintain stability and activity of both calpains. But to date polymorphism of yak CAPNS1 has not been reported. In this study, variation in the exon 6-intron 6 region of CAPNS1 was investigated in 1059 yaks and Chinese cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conrmational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Five PCR-SSCP patterns representing five allelic variations and containing four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 6 were observed. Allele B was the most common allele with a frequency of 48.12% in yak and 93.29% in Chinese cattle whereas allele A and C were only in yak as well as allele D and E were rare (0.42 and 0.16%, respectively) and only in Chinese cattle. These results indicate that yak and cattle CAPNS1 is polymorphic and suggest further analysis is required to see if the variation detected affects their meat quality.
  H. Jiang , W. Q. Zhan , X. Liu and S. X. Jiang
  The antioxidant properties of the various extracts and flavonoids prepared from Oxytropis falcate Bunge were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. In the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 2.05 mg mL-1). Furthermore, rhamnocitrin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone and 2′,4′, β-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcone were purified from chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The radical-scavenging activities of the five compounds were also measured and the results showed that kaempferol (IC50 = 0.11 mg mL-1), rhamnetin (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL-1) and rhamnocitrin (IC50 = 0.15 mg mL-1) exhibited considerable antioxidant activities, but the antioxidant activities of the two dihydrochalcones were very weak. Although these flavonoids are known, this is the first report of antioxidant activity in this plant.
  M.Z. Wang , L.H. Yu , H.R. Wang and X. Liu
  The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forage level on bacterial protein recycling in the rumen by Fluorescence-Labeled Bacteria technique (FLB). Four Xuhuai goats with permanent cannulas were used in a 4x4 Latin squares and diets were divided into A (86.96), B (67.63), C (48.31) and D (28.99%) on the basis of forage level in diet. The results showed that rumen protozoal and bacterial populations were shifted heavily by diets (p<0.01) and C recorded the highest protozoal density while A demonstrated the lowest densities of protozoa and bacteria. Significant differences were detected in protozoa engulfing rates between groups (p<0.01) with the lowest value dropping in B. It was also observed that C had the highest bacterial turnover rate and the shortest recycling time. Further estimation of bacterial protein recycling quantity per day per goat resulting from protozoa predation showed that C interpreted the highest bacterial protein recycling quantity while B had a lower bacterial protein recycling quantity, accounted for just 68.2% of that of group C. Results obtained here indicated that diets containing 67.63% forage could curb the bacterial protein recycling in some degree by regulating protozoal biomass and their ingestion action.
  S de Haan and X. Liu
  No Description
  M. Li , G. Ji , F. Feng , W. Song , R. Ling , D. Chen , X. Liu , J. Li , H. Shi , W. Wang and H. Zhang

Objective: We summarized our experience of living-related small bowel transplantation and postoperative management of 3 patients with short gut syndrome.

Methods: Patient #1, an 18-year-old boy, received a 150-cm segment of distal ileum with a vascular pedicle of distal superior mesenteric artery and vein, which was donated by his father. Patient #2, a 15-year-old boy, received a 160-cm graft of distal ileum from his mother. Patient #3, a 17-year-old boy, received a 170-cm graft of distal ileum from his father. The graft artery and vein were anastomosed to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava, respectively, in end-to-side fashion using 7/0 Prolene suture. Intestinal continuity was restored by anastomosis of proximal end of the graft to the recipients' own proximal jejunum, the distal end was left open as a stoma. The recipient distal gut was anastomosed to the distal end of the graft. All 3 recipients were given FK506 (tacrolimus) regularly combined with periodic mycophenolate mofetil. In cases of acute rejection, large doses of steroids were administered to the recipients.

Results: The recipients and donors had fairly unremarkable postoperative courses. So far, patient #1 has survived for 7 years and 6 months with a well-functioning graft and without requirement for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support. His body weight increased 20 kg and of his life quality has dramatically improved. Patient #2, however, died of acute rejection with fatal sepsis at 5 months after transplantation. Patient #3 has survived for 3 years and 8 months enjoying a normal life. Postoperative recovery of all 3 donors was unremarkable. They were discharged 12 days after surgery without complications.

Conclusion: Outcomes of the implantation using the distal ileum as a graft in living-related small bowel transplantation have been satisfactory for both recipients and donors. It is feasible to anastomose the graft artery and vein to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava. The intestinal continuity can be restored by a 1-stage strategy with minimal risk to the recipient. Appropriate application and adjustment of immune suppressors are crucial for the recipients to experience high-quality lives.
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