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Articles by X. Li
Total Records ( 13 ) for X. Li
  Y Wu , W Xu , G Huang , S Gong , J Li , Y Qin and X. Li

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a large family of highly glycosylated of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that play important roles in plant growth, development, and signal transduction. A cDNA encoding a putative classical AGP named GhH6L was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA libraries, and the deduced protein contains 17 copies of repetitive motif of X–Y–proline–proline–proline (where X is serine or alanine and Y is threonine or serine). Northern blotting analysis and quantitative RT–PCR results showed that it was preferentially expressed in 10 days post-anthesis (dpa) fibers and was also developmentally regulated. A promoter fragment was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by genome walking PCR. Expression of β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under the GhH6L promoter was examined in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants; only petiole and pedicel were stained, no staining was detected in other tissues. Subcellular localization indicated that GhH6L was localized to the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. These data further our understanding of GhH6L as well as shed light on functional insight to GhH6L in cotton.

  H.B. Han , X. Li , K. Yu , W.Z. Ma , Z.C. Cao , G.F. An and Z.X. Lian
  The purpose of this study was carried out the effects of egg white lysozyme treatment on collagen secreting in mice skin. As one of the most indispensable constituting components of skin, collagen is mainly proved to be responsible for its tensile strength. By far, results have shown that lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, plays some positive role in skin burn and yet its function has not been explained in detail in regards to skin condition. In this study, the role of egg white lysozyme in collagen biosynthesis was examined by both dermal fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. RT-PCR was used to trace the expression levels of collagen in cultured cells and HE and VG staining assessed the collagen content in dermis in vivo. According to present study, egg white lysozyme is discovered to promote the secretion of collagen in fibroblasts treated with a dosage of 10 mg mL-1 around 12 to 48 h. Though, it was found that both he expression levels of col1a1 and col3a1 were increased in present experiment, yet the ratio between the secreted type-I collagen and type-cocollagen remained the same in fibroblasts treated with egg white lysozyme. In addition, higher skin moisture content was observed in the mice group treated with egg white lysozyme in vivo according to the report that egg white lysozyme might enhance the hyaluronan synthase1 (Has1) expression. Moreover, in the histological tests the collagen content also increased after egg white lysozyme treatment in both young and old groups with collagen fibril arranged more orderly and compactly than the control group. Egg white lysozyme promoted collagen biosynthesis and extracellular matrix proteins by fibroblasts in the dermis.
  A Rotnitzky , L Li and X. Li

Standardized means, commonly used in observational studies in epidemiology to adjust for potential confounders, are equal to inverse probability weighted means with inverse weights equal to the empirical propensity scores. More refined standardization corresponds with empirical propensity scores computed under more flexible models. Unnecessary standardization induces efficiency loss. However, according to the theory of inverse probability weighted estimation, propensity scores estimated under more flexible models induce improvement in the precision of inverse probability weighted means. This apparent contradiction is clarified by explicitly stating the assumptions under which the improvement in precision is attained.

  Y Tan , Y Li , J Xiao , H Shao , C Ding , G. E Arteel , K. A Webster , J Yan , H Yu , L Cai and X. Li

The effects on angiogenesis of a novel CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, SDF-1βP2G, derived from human stromal cell-derived factor-1β (SDF-1β), were examined in a model of hind limb ischaemia in mice.

Methods and results

The antagonistic activities of SDF-1βP2G against CXCR4 were evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with phosphate-buffered saline and AMD3100 (a small bicyclam antagonist of SDF-1). Angiogenesis, muscle regeneration and the expression of pro-angiogenic factors were evaluated in ischaemic gastrocnemius muscles. Distant toxic effects of SDF-1βP2G were evaluated by inflammatory and apoptotic markers. SDF-1βP2G induced CXCR4 internalization and competitively inhibited the chemotaxis of SDF-1β but did not mediate migration, calcium influx, or the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in cultured T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells or H9C2 cells. SDF-1βP2G enhanced blood flow, angiogenesis, and muscle regeneration in ischaemic hind limbs, and the enhancement was significantly better than that of AMD3100. Markers of angiogenesis and progenitor cell migration, including phosphorylated Akt, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF-1 and CXCR4, were up-regulated by SDF-1βP2G and co-localized with CD31-positive cells. Neutralization of VEGF with its specific antibody abolished SDF-1βP2G-induced blood reperfusion and angiogenesis. No apparent inflammatory and apoptotic effects were found in heart, liver, kidneys, and testes after SDF-1βP2G administration.


Our findings indicate that the novel CXCR4 antagonist, SDF-1βP2G, can efficiently enhance ischaemic angiogenesis, blood flow restoration, and muscle regeneration without apparent adverse effects, most likely through a VEGF-dependent pathway.

  M Chen , X Qiu , W Xu , L Wang , J Zhao and X. Li

Test case generation based on design specifications is an important part of testing processes. In this paper, Unified Modeling Language activity diagrams are used as design specifications. By setting up several test adequacy criteria with respect to activity diagrams, an automatic approach is presented to generate test cases for Java programs. Instead of directly deriving test cases from activity diagrams, this approach selects test cases from a set of randomly generated ones according to a given test adequacy criterion. In the approach, we first instrument a Java program under testing according to its activity diagram model, and randomly generate abundant test cases for the program. Then, by running the instrumented program we obtain the corresponding program execution traces. Finally, by matching these traces with the behavior of the activity diagram, a reduced set of test cases are selected according to the given test adequacy criterion. This approach can also be used to check the consistency between the program execution traces and the behavior of activity diagrams.

  X. Shu , J. Ji , X. Li , J. Sundquist , K. Sundquist and K. Hemminki
  Aims Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with potential mechanistic links to immune-related cancers. We aimed at examining the overall and specific cancer risks among hospitalized T1DM patients from the national registers in Sweden.
Methods A T1DM research cohort was created by identifying T1DM patients from the Hospital Discharge Register and linking them with the Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for subsequent cancers were calculated among patients with T1DM compared with those without T1DM.
Results Two hundred and fifty-eight cases were ascertained with subsequent cancers during the follow-up duration from 1964 to 2006, with an increased overall SIR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.04–1.33) among 24 052 T1DM patients identified at baseline. Significant excess was noted for gastric and skin (squamous cell carcinoma) cancers and for leukaemia. Increased risk of acute lymphatic leukaemia accounted for most of the variation of leukaemia risk (SIR = 5.31, 95% CI 3.32–8.05). Cancer risk varied with sex, age at first hospitalization and numbers of hospitalizations. The risk was higher in women compared with men and in those hospitalized for T1DM at age over 10 years compared with the younger patients. Higher risks were also found among those with more hospital visits.
Conclusion By quantifying the variations of overall and site-specific cancer risks after T1DM, the current study provides novel associations between T1DM and subsequent cancers, the mechanisms of which remain to be established.
  C. Wang , L. Lv , X. Wen , D. Chen , S. Cen , H. Huang , X. Li and X. Ran
  Aims The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hand ulcer in hospitalized patients with diabetes.
Methods We analysed 17 subjects with hand ulcer among diabetic inpatients, who were admitted to the Diabetic Foot Care Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from April 2003 to December 2008.
Results The prevalence of diabetic hand ulcer among hospitalized patients (0.37%) was significantly lower than that of diabetic foot ulcers (9.7%, = 0.000). The mean age was 62.1 ± 9.4 years. The average known durations of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were 5.3 ± 4.9 years and 10.9 ± 2.4%, respectively. All patients lived in the subtropical zone. Fifteen patients (88.2%) were diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ten patients had hand infection. After therapy, the ulcers healed in 13 patients (76.5%) and none of them experienced amputation. The average hospital stay for patients with local infection was characteristically longer than that for patients without infection (= 0.012). The prognosis of the hand ulcer was poorer in the patients who had diabetes for > 3 years compared with those who had diabetes for < 3 years (= 0.009).
Conclusions Diabetic hand ulcer is a relatively rare complication of diabetes in South-West China. Long duration of diabetes, poorly controlled blood glucose, minor trauma and delayed treatment are the risk factors. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hand ulcer. Early control of blood glucose with insulin and early anti-microbial therapy with appropriate antibiotics are crucial. Debridement and drainage are necessary for hand abscesses.
  C. Pan , W. Yang , W. Jia , J. Weng , G. Liu , B. Luo , X. Li , Z. Fu and H. Tian
  Aim  To describe the status of glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes in 2006.

Methods  Subjects having registered for care for > 12 months at a diabetes clinic were enrolled in this study. Glycaemic control was determined by HbA1c and plasma glucose levels; information about self-reported adherence to treatments was obtained by questionnaire; psychological well-being was assessed by use of a modified World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index; and quality of life was measured by use of a modified Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) survey. All data were tabulated and statistical analyses were performed.

Results  A total of 2702 patients were enrolled during 2006. Only 23% of patients achieved an HbA1c level of < 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) as per the 2007 China guideline for Type 2 diabetes and only 16.2% followed all treatment recommendations from healthcare providers. Of the patients, 46.0-68.6% of the patients showed positive psychological well-being. A quality-of-life survey showed that 28.5-50.6% of the patients experienced various diabetes-related emotional problems. Large percentages (approximately 50%) of patients were experiencing psychological insulin resistance.

Conclusions  Although in China therapies for Type 2 diabetes are more effective and available than ever before, the patient outcomes remain disappointing. Problems with glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life, all of which are key to diabetes control, are common among Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  A. Jasek , X. Li , H. Xu , R.M. Raab , J.N. Broomhead and J.T. Lee
  Background and Objectives: An experiment (phase 1) was conducted to evaluate the retained activity of a maize-derived, recombinant carbohydrase enzyme (AC1) when exposed to heat during the pelleting process and homogeneity when mixed into mash diet. A second experiment (phase 2) was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing AC1 concentrations on male broiler growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility. Materials and Methods: A total of 728 broilers were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments with each treatment consisting of 13 replicates with eight Cobb 500 male broilers. The experimental design included a positive control (PC), a reduced energy negative control (NC, comprising the PC less 132 kcal kg1) diet and five additional treatments with increasing dose of AC1 (5, 50, 100, 250 and 500 U glucanase kg1) added to the NC diet. Birds were fed a starter ration for the duration of the study (16 d). Average body weight (BW), mortality adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed consumption (FC) were determined on 16 d of age. At the conclusion of the experiment, all birds from each replicate pen were necropsied and ileal contents pooled within replicate to determine ileal digestibility of energy (IDE) and nitrogen (IDN). Results: In Phase 1, the recovery of ß-glucanase activity in the pellets (in relation to mash feed) were 111, 83 and 82% when pelleted at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively. The coefficient of variation of glucanase recovered when AC1 was mixed into feed and was less than 10%. In Phase 2, the inclusion of AC1 at 100 and 250 U glucanase kg1 increased (p<0.01) BW compared to both the PC and NC fed broilers. This elevation in BW was related to an increase (p<0.01) in FC. As expected, reducing energy in the NC diet decreased (p<0.01) IDE value of the feed as compared to the PC diet. The addition of AC1 to supply ≥100 U glucanase kg1 increased (p<0.01) IDE compared to the NC diet and restored IDE equivalent (p>0.05) to the PC diet. Regression analysis confirmed linear and quadratic increases in IDE and IDN with the addition of AC1. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the thermal stability of maize-derived, recombinant AC1 and that increasing levels positively influences nutrient digestibility leading to significant improvements in broiler performance.
  X. Li , R. Salleh and O. Zakaria
  This research studies on multimedia applications which are now mainly achieved by wired and fixed internet users will also be widely achieved by mobile internet users in 4G networks as well. 3GPP2 has proposed a solution through integrating CDMA2000 network and WLAN network with fixed internet network for the issue. This kind of integration does not consider the wireless spectrum disparity and utilize them efficiently to get higher data rates for mobile internet users. In this study, we propose a new protocol to combine the two networks wireless spectrum. In the end, we simulate and quantitatively demonstrate the new protocol performance.
  X. Li , R. Salleh and O. Zakaria
  In this study, we focus on combination of GIS and 5G wireless mobile multimedia networks to propose a real-time fire disaster processing model-Mobile Multimedia Control Model (MMCM) so that a quick response can be taken once fires over to reduce destroy, especially peoples life. In the end of the study, two models will be compared.
  X. Li

In recent years the emerging importance of estrogen signaling in males in addition to its major role in the female reproductive system became highlighted. Aromatase is the key enzyme for synthesis of estrogens from androgens and is responsible for controlling the androgen/estrogen ratio. Inhibition of aromatase gene expression can be achieved in different ways and is important for the treatment of several estrogen-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer in females or gynecomastia/breast cancer in males, or for non-tumorigenic conditions like precocious puberty and the induction of ovulation. The inhibition of aromatase could also serve as a tool for studying the role of estrogens during development or adulthood. Using transgenic models, we are able to analyze in more detail the involvement of aromatase in the molecular mechanisms underlying the essential balance of the androgen/estrogen ratio. In this review we focus on male phenotype characterization in the aromatase overexpressing transgenic murine models and how these models can further serve as a tool for aromatase inhibitor research.

  Z Tang , P Arjunan , C Lee , Y Li , A Kumar , X Hou , B Wang , P Wardega , F Zhang , L Dong , Y Zhang , S. Z Zhang , H Ding , R. N Fariss , K. G Becker , J Lennartsson , N Nagai , Y Cao and X. Li

Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on the original members of the family, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC remains largely to be explored. We report a novel finding that PDGF-CC is a potent neuroprotective factor that acts by modulating glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity. In several different animal models of neuronal injury, such as axotomy-induced neuronal death, neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury, 6-hydroxydopamine–induced Parkinson’s dopaminergic neuronal death, and ischemia-induced stroke, PDGF-CC protein or gene delivery protected different types of neurons from apoptosis in both the retina and brain. On the other hand, loss-of-function assays using PDGF-C null mice, neutralizing antibody, or short hairpin RNA showed that PDGF-CC deficiency/inhibition exacerbated neuronal death in different neuronal tissues in vivo. Mechanistically, we revealed that the neuroprotective effect of PDGF-CC was achieved by regulating GSK3β phosphorylation and expression. Our data demonstrate that PDGF-CC is critically required for neuronal survival and may potentially be used to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Inhibition of the PDGF-CC–PDGF receptor pathway for different clinical purposes should be conducted with caution to preserve normal neuronal functions.

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