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Articles by X. Hernandez-Velasco
Total Records ( 3 ) for X. Hernandez-Velasco
  G.K. Kallapura , X. Hernandez-Velasco , A. Piekarski , K. Lassiter , N.R. Pumford , G. Tellez , W.G. Bottje , B.M. Hargis and O.B. Faulkner
  Quantifying nitrite, a metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), is a well-established marker for the production of reactive oxygen species and an indirect measurement for inflammation. Under optimal culture conditions various cell based systems, like peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal macrophages along with many macrophage based cell lines, would produce measurable nitrite by 24 to 72 h post stimulation with an agonist. We have developed a rapid ex vivo ileal explant culture method that can measure elevated nitrite within 3 h of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro. The model was developed to measure elevated NO along with the ability to measure differential NO among control and treated groups, with an aptitude to screen potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant candidates. Ileal cross-sections (0.5 cm2) were cultured from chickens that were challenged for three consecutive d with Salmonella Enteritidis in the drinking water. Quantification of NO in these inflamed ileal explants provided a suitable screening model which potentially mimics in vivo intestinal conditions. This model could rapidly detect NO, at a greater magnitude than other cell culture methods. The ileal explants produced elevated nitrite by 3 h with a maximal magnitude of 478.42 μM nitrite 6 h post LPS stimulation. The model was also successful in measuring differential NO between the control and groups treated with potential anti-inflammatory compounds. This unique and simple ileal explant culture method provides a rapid screening system for inflammation modulation and the potential to quantify other inflammatory markers that are indicative of other gut pathogens to evaluate candidates for regulating inflammation.
  F.L. Gazoni , F.C. Adorno , M. Lovato , P. Dilkin , S. Hermes , P.R. Magro Junior , P. Santana Pacheco , M. Dalmagro , M. Renan Felin , X. Hernandez-Velasco and G. Tellez
  The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between lesions caused by Eimeria and the prevalence of clinical and subclinical coccidiosis and other gastrointestinal disorders among broilers reared in Brazil from 2012 to 2014. Intestinal health was evaluated in 5,528 broilers from 82 poultry houses in Brazil in two phases: 1 (12 to 21 days) and 2 (22 to 40 days). Intestinal aspects, lesion scoring and oocyst count of E. maxima in the intestinal mucosa were analyzed. E. acervulina was the most prevalent (mean of 13.5%) species in both rearing phases followed by E. maxima (6.75%) and E. tenella (4.35%). There was a positive correlation of E. acervulina (p = 0.05) with thin intestinal walls and abnormal intestinal tonus in phases 1 and 2, as well as with ingestion of contaminated litter in phase 2. E. maxima showed a positive correlation (p = 0.05) with excess mucus, thickening or thinning of the intestinal walls in phase 1 and cell desquamation, excess fluid and Turkish towel appearance in phase 2. E. tenella showed a positive correlation (p = 0.05) with excess fluid in phases 1 and 2 and with thickening of the intestinal walls and lesions caused by E. maxima in phase 2. The microscopic detection of E. maxima (mean of 23.8%) was correlated (p = 0.05) with factors that negatively affect intestinal health. Subclinical coccidiosis affected 64.45% more broilers in phase 2 than in phase 1.
  F.L. Gazoni , F.C. Adorno , F. Matte , T. Malta , M.R. Felin , T. Urbano , A. Zampar , X. Hernandez-Velasco and G. Tellez
  Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between the lesions caused by Eimeria and the prevalence of coccidiosis and other alterations encountered in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers produced in Brazil from 2015-2016. Materials and Methods: Intestinal health assessments were conducted in 72 broiler integration businesses in Brazil, totaling 2,200 birds in two rearing phases: 1 (age 12-21 days) and 2 (age 22-40 days). Intestinal aspects, lesion scoring and oocyst counts of Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) were analyzed. Results: E. acervulina was the most prevalent species (mean of 13.5%) in both rearing phases, followed by E. maxima (5.6%) and E. tenella (2.2%). E. maxima was present in 30.4% of mucosal scrapings performed during phase 1, which represents a subclinical coccidiosis of 706.98% (7.07 times) in relation to clinical coccidiosis. In phase 2, E. maxima was found in mucosal scrapings of 34.3% of the birds, representing a subclinical coccidiosis of 497.11% (4.98 times) in relation to clinical coccidiosis. In the comparative analysis between the periods, subclinical coccidiosis struck 112.83% (1.13 times) more broilers in phase 2 in relation to stage 1. Subclinical coccidiosis struck a significant number of broilers in the Brazilian flocks and was correlated with various factors of intestinal health reduction. Conclusion: It was concluded that monitoring is of paramount importance to knowing the intestinal health status of poultry flocks because microscopic E. maxima is prevalent (32.3%) and correlated to factors that reduce intestinal health.
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