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Articles by X. S Wang
Total Records ( 2 ) for X. S Wang
  J. R Connor , X. S Wang , R. P Allen , J. L Beard , J. A Wiesinger , B. T Felt and C. J. Earley
 

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder. Clinical studies have implicated the dopaminergic system in RLS, while others have suggested that it is associated with insufficient levels of brain iron. To date, alterations in brain iron status have been demonstrated but, despite suggestions from the clinical literature, there have been no consistent findings documenting a dopaminergic abnormality in RLS brain tissue. In this study, the substantia nigra and putamen were obtained at autopsy from individuals with primary RLS and a neurologically normal control group. A quantitative profile of the dopaminergic system was obtained. Additional assays were performed on a catecholaminergic cell line and animal models of iron deficiency. RLS tissue, compared with controls, showed a significant decrease in D2R in the putamen that correlated with severity of the RLS. RLS also showed significant increases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra, compared with the controls, but not in the putamen. Both TH and phosphorylated (active) TH were significantly increased in both the substantia nigra and putamen. There were no significant differences in either the putamen or nigra for dopamine receptor 1, dopamine transporters or for VMAT. Significant increases in TH and phosphorylated TH were also seen in both the animal and cell models of iron insufficiency similar to that from the RLS autopsy data. For the first time, a clear indication of dopamine pathology in RLS is revealed in this autopsy study. The results suggest cellular regulation of dopamine production that closely matches the data from cellular and animal iron insufficiency models. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a primary iron insufficiency produces a dopaminergic abnormality characterized as an overly activated dopaminergic system as part of the RLS pathology.

  X. S Wang , C. S Cleeland , T. R Mendoza , Y. H Yun , Y Wang , T Okuyama and V. E. Johnson
  Background

Patient reporting of the severity and impact of symptoms is an essential component of cancer symptom management and cancer treatment clinical trials. In multinational clinical trials, cultural and linguistic variations in patient-reported outcomes instruments could confound the interpretation of study results.

Methods

The severity and interference of multiple symptoms in 1433 cancer patients with mixed diagnoses and treatment status from the United States, China, Japan, Russia, and Korea were measured with psychometrically validated language versions of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Mixed-effect ordinal probit regression models were fitted to the pooled data to compare the magnitude of the effect of "country" (nation and linguistic factors) with between-subjects effects on symptom reporting, adjusted for patient and clinical factors (age, sex, performance status, and chemotherapy status).

Results

For the pooled sample, fatigue, disturbed sleep, distress, pain, and lack of appetite were the most severe patient-reported MDASI symptoms. The magnitude of the variance of the country random effects was only one-fourth to one-half of the interpatient variation (2 = 0.23–0.46) for all symptoms, except nausea and vomiting.

Conclusions

Cultural and linguistic variations in symptom reporting among the five language versions of the validated MDASI were limited. Ordinal probit modeling provided a simple mechanism for accounting for cultural and linguistic differences in patient populations. The equivalence among MDASI translations in this study suggests that symptom ratings collected from various cultural and language groups using the MDASI can be interpreted in a similar way in oncology practice, clinical trials, and clinical research.

 
 
 
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