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Articles by X. S Liu
Total Records ( 3 ) for X. S Liu
  F Oury , V. K Yadav , Y Wang , B Zhou , X. S Liu , X. E Guo , L. H Tecott , G Schutz , A. R Means and G. Karsenty

Serotonin is a bioamine regulating bone mass accrual differently depending on its site of synthesis. It decreases accrual when synthesized in the gut, and increases it when synthesized in the brain. The signal transduction events elicited by gut-derived serotonin once it binds to the Htr1b receptor present on osteoblasts have been identified and culminate in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) regulation of osteoblast proliferation. In contrast, we do not know how brain-derived serotonin favors bone mass accrual following its binding to the Htr2c receptor on neurons of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH). We show here—through gene expression analysis, serotonin treatment of wild-type and Htr2c–/– hypothalamic explants, and cell-specific gene deletion in the mouse—that, following its binding to the Htr2c receptor on VMH neurons, serotonin uses a calmodulin kinase (CaMK)-dependent signaling cascade involving CaMKKβ and CaMKIV to decrease the sympathetic tone and increase bone mass accrual. We further show that the transcriptional mediator of these events is CREB, whose phosphorylation on Ser 133 is increased by CaMKIV following serotonin treatment of hypothalamic explants. A microarray experiment identified two genes necessary for optimum sympathetic activity whose expression is regulated by CREB. These results provide a molecular understanding of how serotonin signals in hypothalamic neurons to regulate bone mass accrual and identify CREB as a critical determinant of this function, although through different mechanisms depending on the cell type, neuron, or osteoblast in which it is expressed.

  J Boros , I. J Donaldson , A O'Donnell , Z. A Odrowaz , L Zeef , M Lupien , C. A Meyer , X. S Liu , M Brown and A. D. Sharrocks

Transcription factors play an important role in orchestrating the activation of specific networks of genes through targeting their proximal promoter and distal enhancer regions. However, it is unclear how the specificity of downstream responses is maintained by individual members of transcription-factor families and, in most cases, what their target repertoire is. We have used ChIP-chip analysis to identify the target genes of the ETS-domain transcription factor ELK1. Two distinct modes of ELK1 target gene selection are identified; the first involves redundant promoter binding with other ETS-domain family members; the second occurs through combinatorial binding with a second transcription factor SRF, which specifies a unique group of target genes. One of the most prominent groups of genes forming the ELK1 target network includes classes involved in core gene expression control, namely, components of the basal transcriptional machinery, the spliceosome and the ribosome. Amongst the set of genes encoding the basal transcription machinery components, are a functionally linked subset of GTFs and TAFs. Our study, therefore, reveals an unsuspected level of coordinate regulation of components of the core gene expression control machinery and also identifies two different modes of promoter targeting through binding with a second transcription factor or redundant binding with other ETS-domain family members.

  M Jiang , X Xu , Y Wang , F Toyoda , X. S Liu , M Zhang , R. B Robinson and G. N. Tseng

Cardiac slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel is composed of KCNQ1 (pore-forming) and KCNE1 (auxiliary) subunits. Although KCNE1 is an obligate IKs component that confers the uniquely slow gating kinetics, KCNE2 is also expressed in human heart. In vitro experiments suggest that KCNE2 can associate with the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex to suppress the current amplitude without altering the slow gating kinetics. Our goal here is to test the role of KCNE2 in cardiac IKs channel function. Pulse-chase experiments in COS-7 cells show that there is a KCNE1 turnover in the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex, supporting the possibility that KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex can be substituted by KCNE2 when the latter is available. Biotinylation experiments in COS-7 cells show that although KCNE1 relies on KCNQ1 coassembly for more efficient cell surface expression, KCNE2 can independently traffic to the cell surface, thus becoming available for substituting KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex. Injecting vesicles carrying KCNE1 or KCNE2 into KCNQ1-expressing oocytes leads to KCNQ1 modulation in the same manner as KCNQ1+KCNEx (where x = 1 or 2) cRNA coinjection. Thus, free KCNEx peptides delivered to the cell membrane can associate with existing KCNQ1 channels to modulate their function. Finally, adenovirus-mediated KCNE2 expression in adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes exhibited colocalization with native KCNQ1 protein and reduces the native IKs current density. We propose that in cardiac myocytes the IKs current amplitude is under dynamic control by the availability of KCNE2 subunits in the cell membrane.

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