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Articles by X Yu
Total Records ( 10 ) for X Yu
  X Yu , Y Huang , Q Hu and L. Ma

Homocysteine is an intermediate in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recent studies suggested that there might be links between hyperhomocysteinemia and insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of homocysteine on glucose metabolism. We demonstrated that the levels of insulin were significantly higher in mice with hyperhomocysteinemia than those in the normal mice after administration of glucose. The effect of insulin on glucose output was significantly blocked in the homocysteine-treated hepatocytes. In addition, the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene was elevated in the liver of mice with hyperhomocysteinemia and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with homocysteine. The action of homocysteine was suppressed by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia may be considered as a risk factor that contributes to the development of insulin resistance with respect to elevated glucose output and upregulation of PEPCK, probably via the PKA pathway. Our study provides a novel mechanistic explanation for the development of insulin resistance in hyperhomocysteinemia.

  J Shao , X Yu and B. Zhong

The covariate-adaptive randomization method was proposed for clinical trials long ago but little theoretical work has been done for statistical inference associated with it. Practitioners often apply test procedures available for simple randomization, which is controversial since procedures valid under simple randomization may not be valid under other randomization schemes. In this paper, we provide some theoretical results for testing hypotheses after covariate-adaptive randomization. We show that one way to obtain a valid test procedure is to use a correct model between outcomes and covariates, including those used in randomization. We also show that the simple two sample t-test, without using any covariate, is conservative under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization in terms of its Type I error, and that a valid bootstrap t-test can be constructed. The powers of several tests are examined theoretically and empirically. Our study provides guidance for applications and sheds light on further research in this area.

  H Yi , X Yu , P Gao , Y Wang , S. H Baek , X Chen , H. L Kim , J. R Subjeck and X. Y. Wang

Class A scavenger receptor (SRA), also known as CD204, has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the pattern recognition of pathogen infection. However, its role in adaptive immune responses has not been well defined. In this study, we report that the lack of SRA/CD204 promotes Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonist–augmented tumor-protective immunity, which is associated with enhanced activation of CD8+ effector T cell and improved inhibition of tumor growth. Dendritic cells (DCs) deficient in SRA/CD204 display more effective immunostimulatory activities upon TLR4 engagement than those from wild-type counterparts. Silencing of SRA/CD204 by RNA interference improves the ability of DCs to prime antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells, for example, DCs, play a major role in SRA/CD204-mediated immune modulation. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for SRA/CD204, a non-TLR pattern recognition receptor, as a physiologic negative regulator of TLR4-mediated immune consequences, which has important clinical implications for development of TLR-targeted immunotherapeutic intervention.

  X Yu , T. L Mollan , A Butler , A. J Gow , J. S Olson and M. J. Weiss

Alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) reversibly binds nascent globin to maintain its native structure and facilitate its incorporation into hemoglobin A. Previous studies indicate that some naturally occurring human globin mutations may destabilize the protein by inhibiting its interactions with AHSP. However, these mutations could also affect hemoglobin A production through AHSP-independent effects, including reduced binding to β globin. We analyzed 6 human globin variants with altered AHSP contact surfaces. Alpha globin amino acid substitutions H103Y, H103R, F117S, and P119S impaired interactions with both AHSP and β globin. These mutations are destabilizing in biochemical assays and are associated with microcytosis and anemia in humans. By contrast, K99E and K99N globins bind β globin normally but exhibit attenuated binding to AHSP. These mutations impair protein folding and expression in vitro and appear to be mildly destabilizing in vivo. In Escherichia coli and erythroid cells, globin K99E stability is rescued on coexpression with AHSP mutants in which binding to the abnormal globin chain is restored. Our results better define the biochemical properties of some globin variants and support the hypothesis that AHSP promotes globin chain stability during human erythropoiesis.

  X Yu , N Schneiderhan Marra and T. O. Joos

Background: Over the last 10 years, DNA microarrays have achieved a robust analytical performance, enabling their use for analyzing the whole transcriptome or for screening thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a single experiment. DNA microarrays allow scientists to correlate gene expression signatures with disease progression, to screen for disease-specific mutations, and to treat patients according to their individual genetic profiles; however, the real key is proteins and their manifold functions. It is necessary to achieve a greater understanding of not only protein function and abundance but also their role in the development of diseases. Protein concentrations have been shown to reflect the physiological and pathologic state of an organ, tissue, or cells far more directly than DNA, and proteins can be profiled effectively with protein microarrays, which require only a small amount of sample material.

Content: Protein microarrays have become well-established tools in basic and applied research, and the first products have already entered the in vitro diagnostics market. This review focuses on protein microarray applications for biomarker discovery and validation, disease diagnosis, and use within the area of personalized medicine.

Summary: Protein microarrays have proved to be reliable research tools in screening for a multitude of parameters with only a minimal quantity of sample and have enormous potential in applications for diagnostic and personalized medicine.

  A Lin , J Qian , X Li , X Yu , W Liu , Y Sun , N Chen , C Mei and for the Icodextrin National Multi center Cooperation Group

Background and objectives: While peritoneal dialysis with icodextrin is commonly used in patients with poor peritoneal membrane characteristics, the data on the usefulness of this solution in patients with lower transport characteristics are limited. The study was designed to compare icodextrin to glucose in Chinese prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients of different peritoneal transport characteristics (PET) categories.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a randomized, double-blind, perspective control study. Stable prevalent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were randomized to either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 2.5% glucose (GLU) solution for 4 wk. Peritoneal membrane function was measured to define PET category in baseline. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea nitrogen clearance (CBUN), ultrafiltration (UF) during the long night dwell, dialysate, and metabolic biomarkers were measured at baseline, 2, and 4 wk. UF, Ccr, and CBUN were compared among different PET categories.

Results: A total of 201 CAPD patients were enrolled in the study. There were no baseline differences between the groups. Following 2 and 4 wk of therapy, Ccr, CBUN, and UF were all significantly higher in the ICO versus the GLU group. Additionally, switching to ICO resulted in a significant increase in UF in high, high-average, and low-average transporters as compared with baseline. The extent of increased UF was more obvious in higher transporters. Blood cholesterol level in the ICO group decreased significantly than that in the GLU group.

Conclusion: Compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly improved UF and small solute clearance, even in patients with low-average peritoneal transport.

  T Hara , K Tanaka , K Maehata , K Mitsuda , N. Y Yamasaki , M Ohsaki , K Watanabe , X Yu , T Ito and Y. Yamanaka

A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with a mi- crocalorimeter detector equipped with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for high- accuracy compositional analysis in the nanoscale. A superconducting transition-edge-sensor-type microcalorimeter is applied as the detector. A cryogen-free cooling system, which consists of a mechanical and a dilution refrigerator, is selected to achieve long-term temperature stability. In order to mount these detector and refrigerators on a TEM, the cooling system is specially designed such that these two refrigerators are separated. Also, the detector position and arrangement are carefully designed to avoid adverse affects between the superconductor detector and the TEM lens system. Using the developed EDS system, at present, an energy resolution of 21.92 eV full-width-at-half maximum has been achieved at the Cr K line. This value is about seven times better than that of the current typical commercial Si(Li) detector, which is usually around 140 eV. The developed microcalorimeter EDS system can measure a wide energy range, 1–20 keV, at one time with this high energy resolution that can resolve peaks from most of the elements. Although several further developments will be needed to enable practical use, highly accurate compositional analysis with high energy resolution will be realized by this microcalorimeter EDS system.

  Q Sun , X Yu , D. J Degraff and R. J. Matusik

The forkhead protein A1 (FoxA1) is critical for the androgenic regulation of prostate-specific promoters. Prostate tissue rescued from FoxA1 knockout mice exhibits abnormal prostate development, typified by the absence of expression of differentiation markers and inability to engage in secretion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that FoxA1 is one of the earliest transcription factors that binds to prostate-specific promoters, and that a direct protein-protein interaction occurs between FoxA1 and androgen receptor. Interestingly, evidence of the interaction of FoxA1 with other transcription factors is lacking. The upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2), an E-box-binding transcription factor of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper family, binds to a consensus DNA sequence similar to FoxA1. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the binding of USF2 to prostate-specific gene promoters including the probasin promoter, spermine-binding protein promoter, and prostate-specific antigen core enhancer. Furthermore, we show a direct physical interaction between FoxA1 and USF2 through the use of immunoprecipitation and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. This interaction is mediated via the forkhead DNA-binding domain of FoxA1 and the DNA-binding domain of USF2. In summary, these data indicate that USF2 is one of the components of the FoxA1/androgen receptor transcriptional protein complex that contributes to the expression of androgen-regulated and prostate-specific genes.

  X Ke , M. E Schober , R. A McKnight , S O'Grady , D Caprau , X Yu , C. W Callaway and R. H. Lane

Studies in humans and rats suggest that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) permanently resets the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis reprogramming may involve persistently altered expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (hpGR), an important regulator of HPA axis reactivity. Persistent alteration of gene expression, long after the inciting event, is thought to be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that affect mRNA and mRNA variant expression. GR mRNA variants in both humans and rats include eleven 5'-end variants and GR, the predominant 3'-end variant. The 3'-end variants associated with glucocorticoid resistance in humans (GRβ, GR, GRA, and GRP) have not been reported in rats. We hypothesized that in the rat hippocampus IUGR would decrease total GR mRNA, increase GRβ, GR, GRA, and GRP, and affect epigenetics of the GR gene at birth (D0) and at 21 days of life (D21). IUGR increased hpGR and exon 1.7 hpGR mRNA in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased trimethyl H3/K4 at exon 1.7 at both time points. IUGR also increased hpGR in males at D0 and D21, associated with increased acetyl H3/K9 at exon 3 at both time points. hpGRA increased in female IUGR rats at D0 and D21. In addition, our data support the existence of hpGRβ and hpGRP in the rat. IUGR has sex-specific, persistent effects on GR expression and its histone code. We speculate that postnatal changes in hippocampal GR variant and total mRNA expression may underlie IUGR-associated HPA axis reprogramming.

  P Heinzelman , R Komor , A Kanaan , P Romero , X Yu , S Mohler , C Snow and F. Arnold

We describe an efficient SCHEMA recombination-based approach for screening homologous enzymes to identify stabilizing amino acid sequence blocks. This approach has been used to generate active, thermostable cellobiohydrolase class I (CBH I) enzymes from the 390 625 possible chimeras that can be made by swapping eight blocks from five fungal homologs. Constructing and characterizing the parent enzymes and just 32 ‘monomeras’ containing a single block from a homologous enzyme allowed stability contributions to be assigned to 36 of the 40 blocks from which the CBH I chimeras can be assembled. Sixteen of 16 predicted thermostable chimeras, with an average of 37 mutations relative to the closest parent, are more thermostable than the most stable parent CBH I, from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii. Whereas none of the parent CBH Is were active >65°C, stable CBH I chimeras hydrolyzed solid cellulose at 70°C. In addition to providing a collection of diverse, thermostable CBH Is that can complement previously described stable CBH II chimeras (Heinzelman et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2009;106:5610–5615) in formulating application-specific cellulase mixtures, the results show the utility of SCHEMA recombination for screening large swaths of natural enzyme sequence space for desirable amino acid blocks.

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