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Articles by X Lin
Total Records ( 7 ) for X Lin
  C. y Liu , M. C Wu , F Chen , M Ter Minassian , K Asomaning , R Zhai , Z Wang , L Su , R. S Heist , M. H Kulke , X Lin , G Liu and D. C. Christiani

The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has been increasing rapidly, particularly among white males, over the past few decades in the USA. However, the etiology of EA and the striking male predominance is not fully explained by known risk factors. To identify susceptible genes for EA risk, we conducted a pathway-based candidate gene association study on 335 Caucasian EA cases and 319 Caucasian controls. A total of 1330 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 354 genes were analyzed using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. The genotyped common SNPs include missense and exonic SNPs, SNPs within untranslated regions and 2 kb 5' of the gene, and tagSNPs for genes with little functional information available. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the genetic effect of each SNP on EA risk. We also tested gene–gender interactions using the likelihood ratio tests. We found that the genetic variants in the apoptosis pathway were significantly associated with EA risk after correcting for multiple comparisons. SNPs of rs3127075 in Caspase-7 (CASP7) and rs4661636 in Caspase-9 (CASP9) genes that play a critical role in apoptosis were found to be associated with an increased risk of EA. A protective effect of SNP rs572483 in the progesterone receptor (PGR) gene was observed among women carrying the variant G allele [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.08–0.46] but was not observed among men (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.95–2.00). In conclusion, this study suggests that the genetic variants of CASP7 and CASP9 in the apoptosis pathway may be important predictive markers for EA susceptibility and that PGR in the sex hormone signaling pathway may be associated with the gender differences in EA risk.

  V Verma , B. D Larsen , W Coombs , X Lin , G Spagnol , P. L Sorgen , S. M Taffet and M. Delmar

Gap junction pharmacology is a nascent field. Previous studies have identified molecules that enhance intercellular communication, and may offer potential for innovative antiarrhythmic therapy. However, their specific molecular target(s) and mechanism(s) of action remain unknown. Previously, we identified a 34-aa peptide (RXP-E) that binds the carboxyl terminal domain of Cx43 (Cx43CT) and prevents cardiac gap junction closure and action potential propagation block. These results supported the feasibility of a peptide-based pharmacology to Cx43, but the structure of the core active element in RXP-E, an essential step for pharmacological development, remained undefined. Here, we used a combination of molecular modeling, surface plasmon resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and patch-clamp strategies to define, for the first time, a unique ensemble of pharmacophores that bind Cx43CT and prevent closure of Cx43 channels. Two particular molecules are best representatives of this family: a cyclized heptapeptide (called CyRP-71) and a linear octapeptide of sequence RRNYRRNY. These 2 small compounds offer the first structural platform for the design of Cx43-interacting gap junction openers. Moreover, the structure of these compounds offers an imprint of a region of Cx43CT that is fundamental to gap junction channel function.

  J Zhang , J. Y. F Chang , Y Huang , X Lin , Y Luo , R. J Schwartz , J. F Martin and F. Wang

Heart valves develop from precursor structures called cardiac cushions, an endothelial-lined cardiac jelly that resides in the inner side of the heart tube. The cushions are then invaded by cells from different sources, undergo a series of complicated and poorly understood remodeling processes, and give rise to valves. Disruption of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis impairs morphogenesis of the outflow tract (OFT). Yet, whether FGF signaling regulates OFT valve formation is unknown.


To study how OFT valve formation is regulated and how aberrant cell signaling causes valve defects.

Methods and Results:

By using mouse genetic manipulation, cell lineage tracing, ex vivo heart culture, and molecular biology approaches, we demonstrated that FGF signaling in the OFT myocardium upregulated Bmp4 expression, which then enhanced smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest cells (NCCs) in the cushion. FGF signaling also promoted OFT myocardial cell invasion to the cushion. Disrupting FGF signaling interrupted cushion remodeling with reduced NCCs differentiation into smooth muscle and less cardiomyocyte invasion and resulted in malformed OFT valves.


The results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which the FGF-BMP signaling axis regulates formation of OFT valve primordia by controlling smooth muscle differentiation of cushion NCCs.

  S Wang , Z Zhang , X Lin , D. S Xu , Y Feng and K. Ding

Ophiopogon japonicus is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have confirmed its beneficial properties, but not the mechanism of action. Herein, we investigate the anti-ischemic properties of a water-soluble β-d-fructan (MDG-1) from Ophiopogon japonicus, and assess the cytoprotective and proangiogenic effects of MDG-1. MDG-1 protects cardiomyocyte and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death, as well as protect myocardial cells from ischemia-induced death occurring after coronary artery ligation in rats. Meanwhile, MDG-1 stimulates the differentiation of HMEC-1 cells into capillary-like structures in vitro and functions as a chemoattractant in migration assays, and promotes neovascularization in ischemic myocardium. In addition, MDG-1 upregulates sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 expression. Both MDG-1 and S1P induce basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression in HMEC-1 cells. Further study revealed that both MDG-1 and S1P induce Akt and ERK phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, an effect that is attenuated by pre-treatment with either the Akt inhibitor wortmannin or the ERK inhibitor PD98059, and MDG-1 can also induce eNOS phosphorylation and increases in production of NO. These data indicate that MDG-1 presented remarkable anti-ischemic activity and protects cardiomyocyte and HMEC-1 cells from ischemia-induced cell damage by inducing S1P1 and bFGF cytoprotective and proangiogenic effects via the S1P/bFGF/Akt/ERK/eNOS signaling pathway.

  X Fang , X Li , B Stanton , Y Hong , L Zhang , G Zhao , J Zhao , X Lin and D. Lin

Objective To assess the relationship between parental HIV/AIDS and psychosocial adjustment of children in rural central China. Methods Participants included 296 double AIDS orphans (children who had lost both their parents to AIDS), 459 single orphans (children who had lost one parent to AIDS), 466 vulnerable children who lived with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children who did not experience HIV/AIDS-related illness and death in their families. The measures included depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectations, hopefulness about the future, and perceived control over the future. Results AIDS orphans and vulnerable children consistently demonstrated poorer psychosocial adjustment than comparison children in the same community. The level of psychosocial adjustment was similar between single orphans and double orphans, but differed by care arrangement among double orphans. Conclusion The findings underscore the urgency and importance of culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention efforts targeting psychosocial problems among children affected by AIDS and call for more exploration of risk and resilience factors, both individual and contextual, affecting the psychosocial wellbeing of these children.

  J Perla Kajan , X Lin , B. S Cooperman , E Goldman , H Jakubowski , C. R Knudsen and W. Mandecki

Here we describe the design, preparation and characterization of 10 EF-Tu mutants of potential utility for the study of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) interaction with tRNA by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Each mutant contains a single cysteine residue at positions in EF-Tu that are proximal to tRNA sites within the aminoacyl-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex that have previously been labeled with fluorophores. These positions fall in the 323–326 and 344–348 regions of EF-Tu, and at the C terminus. The EF-Tus were isolated as N-terminal fusions to glutathione S-transferase (GST), which was cleaved to yield intact EF-Tus. The mutant EF-Tus were tested for binding to GDP, binding to tRNA in gel retardation and protection assays, and activity in poly-U translation in vitro. The results indicate that at least three EF-Tu mutants, K324C, G325C and E348C, are suitable for further studies. Remarkably, GST fusions that were not cleaved were also active in the various assays, despite the N-terminal fusion.

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