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Articles by X Fang
Total Records ( 7 ) for X Fang
  X Fang , R Palanivel , J Cresser , K Schram , R Ganguly , F. S. L Thong , J Tuinei , A Xu , E. D Abel and G. Sweeney

Adiponectin promotes cardioprotection by various mechanisms, and this study used primary cardiomyocytes and the isolated working perfused heart to investigate cardiometabolic effects. We show in adult cardiomyocytes that adiponectin increased CD36 translocation and fatty acid uptake as well as insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Akt phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that adiponectin enhanced association of AdipoR1 with APPL1, subsequent binding of APPL1 with AMPK2, which led to phosphorylation and inhibition of ACC and increased fatty acid oxidation. Using siRNA to effectively knockdown APPL1 in neonatal cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated an essential role for APPL1 in mediating increased fatty acid uptake and oxidation by adiponectin. Importantly, enhanced fatty acid oxidation in conjunction with AMPK and ACC phosphorylation was also observed in the isolated working heart. Despite increasing fatty acid oxidation and myocardial oxygen consumption, adiponectin increased hydraulic work and maintained cardiac efficiency. In summary, the present study documents several beneficial metabolic effects mediated by adiponectin in the heart and provides novel insight into the mechanisms behind these effects, in particular the importance of APPL1.

  X Fang , G. M Massetti , L Ouyang , S. D Grosse and J. A. Mercy

Context  Studies based on clinical samples suggest a connection between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and later intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration.

Objective  To examine the association between retrospectively reported childhood ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and the perpetration of physical IPV in a population-based sample of young adults.

Design, Setting, and Participants  The study population consisted of 11 238 participants (mean [SD] age, 22.0 [1.7] years) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Multinomial logistic regressions and propensity score matching were used to analyze the relationships of IPV with symptoms of ADHD domains (hyperactive/impulsive and inattentive) and symptoms of CD as well as with ADHD and CD dichotomized on the basis of symptom criteria.

Main Outcome Measures  Respondents' answers to the 2 questions in the wave III survey reflecting perpetration of physical violence toward a partner were used to define IPV perpetration. Intimate partner violence perpetration resulting in injury or not was assessed with a follow-up question.

Results  Conduct disorder significantly predicted IPV perpetration both with and without injury. Controlling for CD and hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention independently predicted young adult IPV perpetration without injury. Controlling for inattention and CD, no significant relationship between hyperactivity/impulsivity and IPV perpetration without injury was found. Results were different regarding IPV perpetration resulting in injury. Hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, independently predicted IPV perpetration resulting in injury. In categorical analyses, CD predicted both types of IPV, and ADHD significantly predicted IPV perpetration resulting in injury but did not significantly predict IPV perpetration without injury.

Conclusions  Conduct disorder is consistently associated with violence in intimate relationships. Controlling for CD, there is also an association between ADHD and IPV. Results suggest the need for services and treatment strategies that specifically address the risks for violence and promote healthy intimate relationships for youths with CD and ADHD.

  R Li , Y Li , X Fang , H Yang , J Wang , K Kristiansen and J. Wang

Next-generation massively parallel sequencing technologies provide ultrahigh throughput at two orders of magnitude lower unit cost than capillary Sanger sequencing technology. One of the key applications of next-generation sequencing is studying genetic variation between individuals using whole-genome or target region resequencing. Here, we have developed a consensus-calling and SNP-detection method for sequencing-by-synthesis Illumina Genome Analyzer technology. We designed this method by carefully considering the data quality, alignment, and experimental errors common to this technology. All of this information was integrated into a single quality score for each base under Bayesian theory to measure the accuracy of consensus calling. We tested this methodology using a large-scale human resequencing data set of 36x coverage and assembled a high-quality nonrepetitive consensus sequence for 92.25% of the diploid autosomes and 88.07% of the haploid X chromosome. Comparison of the consensus sequence with Illumina human 1M BeadChip genotyped alleles from the same DNA sample showed that 98.6% of the 37,933 genotyped alleles on the X chromosome and 98% of 999,981 genotyped alleles on autosomes were covered at 99.97% and 99.84% consistency, respectively. At a low sequencing depth, we used prior probability of dbSNP alleles and were able to improve coverage of the dbSNP sites significantly as compared to that obtained using a nonimputation model. Our analyses demonstrate that our method has a very low false call rate at any sequencing depth and excellent genome coverage at a high sequencing depth.

  G Zhang , G Guo , X Hu , Y Zhang , Q Li , R Li , R Zhuang , Z Lu , Z He , X Fang , L Chen , W Tian , Y Tao , K Kristiansen , X Zhang , S Li , H Yang , J Wang and J. Wang

Understanding the dynamics of eukaryotic transcriptome is essential for studying the complexity of transcriptional regulation and its impact on phenotype. However, comprehensive studies of transcriptomes at single base resolution are rare, even for modern organisms, and lacking for rice. Here, we present the first transcriptome atlas for eight organs of cultivated rice. Using high-throughput paired-end RNA-seq, we unambiguously detected transcripts expressing at an extremely low level, as well as a substantial number of novel transcripts, exons, and untranslated regions. An analysis of alternative splicing in the rice transcriptome revealed that alternative cis-splicing occurred in ~33% of all rice genes. This is far more than previously reported. In addition, we also identified 234 putative chimeric transcripts that seem to be produced by trans-splicing, indicating that transcript fusion events are more common than expected. In-depth analysis revealed a multitude of fusion transcripts that might be by-products of alternative splicing. Validation and chimeric transcript structural analysis provided evidence that some of these transcripts are likely to be functional in the cell. Taken together, our data provide extensive evidence that transcriptional regulation in rice is vastly more complex than previously believed.

  X Fang , X Li , B Stanton , Y Hong , L Zhang , G Zhao , J Zhao , X Lin and D. Lin

Objective To assess the relationship between parental HIV/AIDS and psychosocial adjustment of children in rural central China. Methods Participants included 296 double AIDS orphans (children who had lost both their parents to AIDS), 459 single orphans (children who had lost one parent to AIDS), 466 vulnerable children who lived with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children who did not experience HIV/AIDS-related illness and death in their families. The measures included depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectations, hopefulness about the future, and perceived control over the future. Results AIDS orphans and vulnerable children consistently demonstrated poorer psychosocial adjustment than comparison children in the same community. The level of psychosocial adjustment was similar between single orphans and double orphans, but differed by care arrangement among double orphans. Conclusion The findings underscore the urgency and importance of culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention efforts targeting psychosocial problems among children affected by AIDS and call for more exploration of risk and resilience factors, both individual and contextual, affecting the psychosocial wellbeing of these children.

  M Pu , X Fang , A. G Redfield , A Gershenson and M. F. Roberts

The enzymatic activity of the peripheral membrane protein, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), is increased by nonsubstrate phospholipids with the extent of enhancement tuned by the membrane lipid composition. For Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC, a small amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) activates the enzyme toward its substrate PI; above 0.5 mol fraction PC (XPC), enzyme activity decreases substantially. To provide a molecular basis for this PC-dependent behavior, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to explore enzyme binding to multicomponent lipid vesicles composed of PC and anionic phospholipids (that bind to the active site as substrate analogues) and high resolution field cycling 31P NMR methods to estimate internal correlation times (c) of phospholipid headgroup motions. PI-PLC binds poorly to pure anionic phospholipid vesicles, but 0.1 XPC significantly enhances binding, increases PI-PLC activity, and slows nanosecond rotational/wobbling motions of both phospholipid headgroups, as indicated by increased c. PI-PLC activity and phospholipid c are constant between 0.1 and 0.5 XPC. Above this PC content, PI-PLC has little additional effect on the substrate analogue but further slows the PC c, a motional change that correlates with the onset of reduced enzyme activity. For PC-rich bilayers, these changes, together with the reduced order parameter and enhanced lateral diffusion of the substrate analogue in the presence of PI-PLC, imply that at high XPC, kinetic inhibition of PI-PLC results from intravesicle sequestration of the enzyme from the bulk of the substrate. Both methodologies provide a detailed view of protein-lipid interactions and can be readily adapted for other peripheral membrane proteins.

  M Li , X Fang , Z Wei , J. P York and P. Zhang

Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancers. Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a critical cellular mechanism that prevents chromosome missegregation and therefore aneuploidy by blocking premature separation of sister chromatids. Thus, SAC, much like the DNA damage checkpoint, is essential for genome stability. In this study, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying a Cdc20 allele in which three residues critical for the interaction with Mad2 were mutated to alanine. The mutant Cdc20 protein (AAA-Cdc20) is no longer inhibited by Mad2 in response to SAC activation, leading to the dysfunction of SAC and aneuploidy. The dysfunction could not be rescued by the additional expression of another Cdc20 inhibitor, BubR1. Furthermore, we found that Cdc20AAA/AAA mice died at late gestation, but Cdc20+/AAA mice were viable. Importantly, Cdc20+/AAA mice developed spontaneous tumors at highly accelerated rates, indicating that the SAC-mediated inhibition of Cdc20 is an important tumor-suppressing mechanism.

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