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Articles by X Cui
Total Records ( 8 ) for X Cui
  Y Jin , A. B Hofseth , X Cui , A. J Windust , D Poudyal , A. A Chumanevich , L. E Matesic , N. P Singh , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti and L. J. Hofseth

Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Inflammatory cell apoptosis is a key mechanism regulating ulcerative colitis. American ginseng (AG) is a putative antioxidant that can suppress hyperactive immune cells. We have recently shown that AG can prevent and treat mouse colitis. Because p53 levels are elevated in inflammatory cells in both mouse and human colitis, we tested the hypothesis that AG protects from colitis by driving inflammatory cell apoptosis through a p53 mechanism. We used isogenic p53+/+ and p53–/– inflammatory cell lines as well as primary CD4+/CD25 effector T cells from p53+/+ and p53–/– mice to show that AG drives apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Moreover, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in C57BL/6 p53+/+ and p53–/– mice to test whether the protective effect of AG against colitis is p53 dependent. Data indicate that AG induces apoptosis in p53+/+ but not in isogenic p53–/– cells in vitro. In vivo, C57BL/6 p53+/+ mice are responsive to the protective effects of AG against DSS-induced colitis, whereas AG fails to protect from colitis in p53–/– mice. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes is elevated in p53+/+ mice consuming DSS + AG but not in p53–/– mice consuming DSS + AG. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that AG drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which AG protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. Cancer Prev Res; 3(3); 339–47

  X Cui , Y Jin , A. B Hofseth , E Pena , J Habiger , A Chumanevich , D Poudyal , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti , U. P Singh and L. J. Hofseth

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol that exhibits pleiotropic health beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective, and cancer-protective activities. It is recognized as one of the more promising natural molecules in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory disease of the colon associated with a high colon cancer risk. Here, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis, which resembles human ulcerative colitis pathology. Resveratrol mixed in food ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly improves inflammation score, downregulates the percentage of neutrophils in the mesenteric lymph nodes and lamina propria, and modulates CD3+ T cells that express tumor necrosis factor- and IFN-. Markers of inflammation and inflammatory stress (p53 and p53-phospho-Ser15) are also downregulated by resveratrol. Because chronic colitis drives colon cancer risk, we carried out experiments to determine the chemopreventive properties of resveratrol. Tumor incidence is reduced from 80% in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) + DSS to 20% in mice treated with AOM + DSS + resveratrol (300 ppm). Tumor multiplicity also decreased with resveratrol treatment. AOM + DSS–treated mice had 2.4 ± 0.7 tumors per animal compared with AOM + DSS + 300 ppm resveratrol, which had 0.2 ± 0.13 tumors per animal. The current study indicates that resveratrol is a useful, nontoxic complementary and alternative strategy to abate colitis and potentially colon cancer associated with colitis. Cancer Prev Res; 3(4); 549–59. ©2010 AACR.

  X Cui , Y Jin , D Poudyal , A. A Chumanevich , T Davis , A Windust , A Hofseth , W Wu , J Habiger , E Pena , P Wood , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti and L. Hofseth

We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG) prevents and treats mouse colitis. Because both mice and humans with chronic colitis have a high colon cancer risk, we tested the hypothesis that AG can be used to prevent colitis-driven colon cancer. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we show that AG can suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of AG, we also carried out antibody array experiments on colon cells isolated at a precancerous stage. We found there were 82 protein end points that were either significantly higher (41 proteins) or significantly lower (41 proteins) in the AOM + DSS group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. In contrast, there were only 19 protein end points that were either significantly higher (10 proteins) or significantly lower (9 proteins) in the AOM + DSS + AG group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. Overall, these results suggest that AG keeps the colon environment in metabolic equilibrium when mice are treated with AOM + DSS and gives insight into the mechanisms by which AG protects from colon cancer associated with colitis.

  A. A Chumanevich , D Poudyal , X Cui , T Davis , P. A Wood , C. D Smith and L. J. Hofseth

Sphingolipid metabolism is driven by inflammatory cytokines. These cascade of events include the activation of sphingosine kinase (SK), and subsequent production of the mitogenic and proinflammatory lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Overall, S1P is one of the crucial components in inflammation, making SK an excellent target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We have recently shown that SK inhibitors suppress colitis and hypothesize here that the novel SK inhibitor, ABC294640, prevents the development of colon cancer. In an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model, there was a dose-dependent decrease in tumor incidence with SK inhibitor treatment. The tumor incidence (number of animals with tumors per group) in the vehicle, ABC294640 (20 mg/kg) and ABC294640 (50 mg/kg) groups were 80, 40 and 30%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity (number of tumors per animal) also decreased from 2.1 ± 0.23 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + vehicle group to 1.2 ± 0 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + ABC294640 (20 mg/kg) and to 0.8 ± 0.4 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + ABC294640 (50 mg/kg) group. Importantly, with ABC294640, there were no observed toxic side effects. To explore mechanisms, we isolated cells from the colon (CD45–, representing primarily colon epithelial cells) and (CD45+, representing primarily colon inflammatory cells) then measured known targets of SK that control cell survival. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhibition of SK activity by our novel SK inhibitor modulates key pathways involved in cell survival and may be a viable treatment strategy for the chemoprevention colitis-driven colon cancer.

  X. J He , Y. F Hsu , S Zhu , H. L Liu , O Pontes , J Zhu , X Cui , C. S Wang and J. K. Zhu

RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is a conserved mechanism for epigenetic silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements. We report that the rdm4 (RNA-directed DNA Methylation4) mutation not only impairs RdDM, but also causes pleiotropic developmental defects in Arabidopsis. Both RNA polymerase II (Pol II)- and Pol V-dependent transcripts are affected in the rdm4 mutant. RDM4 encodes a novel protein that is conserved from yeast to humans and interacts with Pol II and Pol V in plants. Our results suggest that RDM4 functions in epigenetic regulation and plant development by serving as a transcriptional regulator for RNA Pol V and Pol II, respectively.

  R. C DeKelver , V. M Choi , E. A Moehle , D. E Paschon , D Hockemeyer , S. H Meijsing , Y Sancak , X Cui , E. J Steine , J. C Miller , P Tam , V. V Bartsevich , X Meng , I Rupniewski , S. M Gopalan , H. C Sun , K. J Pitz , J. M Rock , L Zhang , G. D Davis , E. J Rebar , I. M Cheeseman , K. R Yamamoto , D. M Sabatini , R Jaenisch , P. D Gregory and F. D. Urnov

Isogenic settings are routine in model organisms, yet remain elusive for genetic experiments on human cells. We describe the use of designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for efficient transgenesis without drug selection into the PPP1R12C gene, a "safe harbor" locus known as AAVS1. ZFNs enable targeted transgenesis at a frequency of up to 15% following transient transfection of both transformed and primary human cells, including fibroblasts and hES cells. When added to this locus, transgenes such as expression cassettes for shRNAs, small-molecule-responsive cDNA expression cassettes, and reporter constructs, exhibit consistent expression and sustained function over 50 cell generations. By avoiding random integration and drug selection, this method allows bona fide isogenic settings for high-throughput functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in essentially any transformed human cell type and in primary cells.

  H Zhu , G. J Li , L Ding , X Cui , H Berg , S. M Assmann and Y. Xia

Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, which consist of G, Gβ, and G subunits, play important roles in transducing extracellular signals perceived by cell surface receptors into intracellular physiological responses. In addition to a single prototypical G protein (GPA1), Arabidopsis has three unique G-like proteins, known as XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3, that have been found to be localized in nuclei, although their functions and mode of action remain largely unknown. Through a transcriptomic analysis, we found that XLG2 and XLG3 were rapidly induced by infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, whereas the XLG1 transcript level was not affected by pathogen infection. A reverse genetic screen revealed that the xlg2 loss-of-function mutation causes enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae. Transcriptome profiling revealed that the xlg2 mutation affects pathogen-triggered induction of a small set of defense-related genes. However, xlg1 and xlg3 mutants showed no difference from wild-type plants in resistance to P. syringae. In addition, the xlg2 xlg3 double mutant and the xlg1 xlg2 xlg3 triple mutant were not significantly different from the xlg2 single mutant in the disease resistance phenotype, suggesting that the roles of XLG1 and XLG3 in defense, if any, are less significant than for XLG2. Constitutive overexpression of XLG2 leads to the accumulation of abnormal transcripts from multiple defense-related genes. Through co-immunoprecipitation assays, XLG2 was found to interact with AGB1, the sole Gβ subunit in Arabidopsis, which has previously been found to be a positive regulator in resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. However, no significant difference was found between three xlg single mutants, the xlg2 xlg3 double mutant, the xlg triple mutant, and wild-type plants in resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea or Alternaria brassicicola. These results suggest that XLG2 and AGB1 are components of a G-protein complex different from the prototypical heterotrimeric G-protein and may have distinct functions in modulating defense responses.

  A. E Thalacker Mercer , L. J Dell'Italia , X Cui , J. M Cross and M. M. Bamman

Across numerous model systems, aging skeletal muscle demonstrates an impaired regenerative response when exposed to the same stimulus as young muscle. To better understand the impact of aging in a human model, we compared changes to the skeletal muscle transcriptome induced by unaccustomed high-intensity resistance loading (RL) sufficient to cause moderate muscle damage in young (37 yr) vs. older (73 yr) adults. Serum creatine kinase was elevated 46% 24 h after RL in all subjects with no age differences, indicating similar degrees of myofiber membrane wounding by age. Despite this similarity, from genomic microarrays 318 unique transcripts were differentially expressed after RL in old vs. only 87 in young subjects. Follow-up pathways analysis and functional annotation revealed among old subjects upregulation of transcripts related to stress and cellular compromise, inflammation and immune responses, necrosis, and protein degradation and changes in expression (up- and downregulation) of transcripts related to skeletal and muscular development, cell growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, fibrosis and connective tissue function, myoblast-myotube fusion and cell-cell adhesion, and structural integrity. Overall the transcript-level changes indicative of undue inflammatory and stress responses in these older adults were not mirrored in young subjects. Follow-up immunoblotting revealed higher protein expression among old subjects for NF-B, heat shock protein (HSP)70, and IL-6 signaling [total and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 at Tyr705]. Together, these novel findings suggest that young and old adults are equally susceptible to RL-mediated damage, yet the muscles of older adults are much more sensitive to this modest degree of damage—launching a robust transcriptome-level response that may begin to reveal key differences in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle with advancing age.

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