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Articles by X Bai
Total Records ( 4 ) for X Bai
  D. J Englot , L Yang , H Hamid , N Danielson , X Bai , A Marfeo , L Yu , A Gordon , M. J Purcaro , J. E Motelow , R Agarwal , D. J Ellens , J. D Golomb , M. C. F Shamy , H Zhang , C Carlson , W Doyle , O Devinsky , K Vives , D. D Spencer , S. S Spencer , C Schevon , H. P Zaveri and H. Blumenfeld
 

Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a ‘network inhibition hypothesis’ in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem–diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1–2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in each hemisphere. Finally, we observed that complex-partial seizures were somewhat more common with onset in the language-dominant temporal lobe. These findings provide direct evidence for cortical dysfunction in the form of bilateral frontoparietal slow waves associated with impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures. We hypothesize that bilateral temporal lobe seizures may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on subcortical arousal systems. Further investigations will be needed to fully determine the role of cortical-subcortical networks in ictal neocortical dysfunction and may reveal treatments to prevent this important negative consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  P Gao , K Liu , L Liu , Z Wang , Z Liao , Z Xu , W Wang , X Bai , E Wang and Y. Li
 

The higher-order harmonic resonances, including second and third harmonic modes, were induced by applying alternative current signals inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), which have been used to study the mechanical properties of individual cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanowires. Young's moduli (E) and mechanical quality factors (Q) of individual CdS nanowires with diameters in the range of 50–350 nm were measured with the assistance of the mechanical resonances. The results indicate that the smooth nanowires have larger E and Q in comparison with the rough nanowires, and for the rough nanowires, E and Q increase with increasing diameters. The morphology- and size-dependent mechanical properties of CdS nanowires are directly correlated with their structure, as imaged by in situ TEM.

  S Zheng , W Li , M Xu , X Bai , Z Zhou , J Han , J. Y. J Shyy and X. Wang
 

Ischemia induces angiogenesis as a compensatory response. Although ischemia is known to causes synthesis and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), it is not clear whether CGRP regulates angiogenesis under ischemia and how does it function. Thus we investigated the role of CGRP in angiogenesis and the involved mechanisms. We found that CGRP level was increased in the rat hindlimb ischemic tissue. The expression of exogenous CGRP by adenovirus vectors enhanced blood flow recovery and increased capillary density in ischemic hindlimbs. In vitro, CGRP promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation and migration. Further more, CGRP activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) both in vivo and in vitro, and pharmacological inhibition of CGRP and cAMP attenuated the CGRP-activated AMPK in vitro. CGRP also induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in HUVECs at Ser1177 and Ser633 in a time-dependent manner, and such effects were abolished by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. As well, Compound C blocked CGRP-enhanced HUVEC tube formation and migration. These findings indicate that CGRP promotes angiogenesis by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway in endothelial cells.

  X Huang , X Bai , Y Cao , J Wu , M Huang , D Tang , S Tao , T Zhu , Y Liu , Y Yang , X Zhou , Y Zhao , M Wu , J Wei , D Wang , G Xu , S Wang , D Ma and J. Zhou
 

Angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as an important prognosticator associated with the progression of lymphoma and as an attractive target for novel modalities. We report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which lymphoma endothelium facilitates the growth and dissemination of lymphoma by interacting with circulated T cells and suppresses the activation of CD4+ T cells. Global gene expression profiles of microdissected endothelium from lymphoma and reactive lymph nodes revealed that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) was preferentially expressed in lymphoma-derived endothelial cells (ECs). Clinically, the level of Tim-3 in B cell lymphoma endothelium was closely correlated to both dissemination and poor prognosis. In vitro, Tim-3+ ECs modulated T cell response to lymphoma surrogate antigens by suppressing activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes through the activation of the interleukin-6–STAT3 pathway, inhibiting Th1 polarization, and providing protective immunity. In a lymphoma mouse model, Tim-3–expressing ECs promoted the onset, growth, and dissemination of lymphoma by inhibiting activation of CD4+ T cells and Th1 polarization. Our findings strongly argue that the lymphoma endothelium is not only a vessel system but also a functional barrier facilitating the establishment of lymphoma immune tolerance. These findings highlight a novel molecular mechanism that is a potential target for enhancing the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy and controlling metastatic diseases.

 
 
 
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