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Articles by Wu-Yi Liu
Total Records ( 8 ) for Wu-Yi Liu
  Wu-Yi Liu
  The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different controlled temperatures and analyze the measures and/or parameters of the controlled atmosphere storage for fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. The effect of temperature, relative humidity, gas composition and other impacting factors for fresh cucumbers and tomatoes storage was also analyzed. The storage lives of fruits treated with different temperatures and gas composition treatments (mainly including oxygen and carbon dioxide) was investigated in the present work. Recommendation for the controlled atmosphere storage suggested that optimal controlled atmosphere storage measures and/or parameters for fresh cucumbers and tomatoes were as following temperature (10-13°C, with a variation of ±1°C), relative humidity (90-95%) and maintaining appropriate atmosphere or gas composition (containing 6% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide).
  Wu-Yi Liu and Chun-Jiang Zhao
  With the aim of testing whether there are possible genetic communications between Chinese gamecocks and their neighboring native chicken breeds, this study comprehensively analyzed an integrative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data of 328 chicken (69 gamecocks belonging to 5 breeds and 259 domesticated chicken belonging to 18 breeds). Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and phylogeny demonstrated Chinese gamecocks formed monophyletic groups that had been differentiated significantly with other native chicken breeds, though some of the clusters appeared to be an admixture of gamecocks and domesticated chicken. All the analysis demonstrated significant differentiation within chicken populations sampled and presented a gene flow mode of geographical distribution (p<0.05, AMOVA). In this study, we found most of the chicken breeds have been an admixture with possible gene flow among them, except for three gamecock breeds and three native chicken breeds, Chahua, Gushi and Tibetan chicken, whose races are relatively pure. Our study provided important clues for the research and understanding of the evolutionary and genetics relationship among Chinese native chicken breeds.
  Wu-Yi Liu and Ke-Jun Zhang
  The technical procedures for extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues include many steps such as chemical treatment, enzymatic digestion, phenol-chloroform purification and alcohol precipitation. Formalin-fixed specimens used in molecular cell and DNA studies have shown shortcomings with respect to the efficacy of DNA isolation and subsequent PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification. This study was designed to simplify and maximize recovery of PCR-amplifiable DNA from formalin-fixed toad and frog specimens and also to minimize co-extraction of substances that inhibit PCR amplification. This is achieved by a combination of DNA extraction from formalin-fixed muscle tissues using a salt-out buffer consisting of EDTA and proteinase K and NaCl. All steps are performed at room temperature (20-25°C), thereby reducing further degradation of the already damaged fragile specimen DNA and providing an optimal trade-off between DNA release and degradation. The salt-extraction method of genomic DNA presented here allows DNA isolation from formalin-fixed tissues with a minimum of working steps and equipment and rapidly yields much DNA.
  Wu-yi Liu and Ke-jun Zhang
  The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are the products of main regulatory genes in metazoans. Regulatory genes are usually believed to play a large role in morphological and genetic diversifications and are often characterized by elevatedrates of evolution. In previous studies, it was showed there was much genetic diversification among the members of Hairy and Enhancer of split (Hairy/E(spl) or H/E(spl)) bHLH family. This promoted us to do further research on the mechanism of genetic diversification within the H/E(spl) bHLH family. With all the data available, we carried out an evolutionary analysis among sequence sites of the enlarged H/E(spl) bHLH family and reported that all the Hes gene lineages were under purifying selection, but the Hes2, Hes3, Hes5 lineages evolved faster than the other ones with relatively higher omega values. We found nine sites of Hes5 genes under significantly positive selection and concluded that the diversity of H/E(spl) genes has been established through relaxed selective constraint.
  Wu-Yi Liu
  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a fundamental in vitro technique to molecular biology in practice. However, the utility of PCR and PCR-based methods is dependent on the unique of identifying and designing and efficient primer sequences. In silico PCR can thus assist in selection of newly designed primers, identify potential mismatches in the primer binding sites and greatly avoid the amplification issues of unwanted amplicons before any real experiments in practice. The present study was aimed to design and select novel primers and validate reported primers for multi-exon genes in practical investigation procedure on the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of PRKAG2 and PRKAG3 gene loci in Chinese native chicken populations applying in silico PCR analysis strategy. After careful experimental operation and comparison, it was found that results of in silico PCR analysis and the real experimental PCR amplifications were strikingly in resemblance.
  Ke-rong Zhang and Wu-Yi Liu
  The aim of this study was to model and estimate the contribution of regional agricultural science and technology to the total agricultural output with the Cobb-Douglas equation and transcendental logarithmic production function model (e.g., the Cobb-Douglas production function model) in Anhui province, China with annual data obtained during the period of 1990-2012. The present study revealed that the contribution of regional agricultural science and technology increased significantly and appeared in an upward trend in Anhui province during the period of 1990-2012 while the rough and adjusted indexes of the regional contribution were estimated as 78.338 and 63.538%, respectively. Based on available annual data and data estimated and generated with the Cobb-Douglas production function model by the EViews 6.0 statistical software package, the impacts of four determinant elements and impacting factors of the total agricultural output were further analyzed in the study. The ultimate result was discussed to explore the economic and social impacts of regional agricultural science and technology and provide an empirical example and a data reference for relevant decision-makings.
  Wu-Yi Liu , Chun-Jiang Zhao and Jun-Ying Li
  We sought to design a simple and rapid diagnostic kit for sex identification in chicks and embryos of Chinese gamecocks, using DNA extracted from chicks and embryos through non-invasive methods. This diagnostic process is based mainly on the amplification of intron length polymorphisms in chromo-helicase DNA-binding (CHD) genes in both Z and W chromosomes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This approach offers some advantage over the old diagnostic method developed by Fridolfsson and Ellegren, in which one of the primers is mismatched to the chicken CHD-Z gene and it can additionally be used for the rapid sexing of chicks and embryos. In this study, we demonstrate that the improved method of sex identification is more stable than Fridolfsson’s and uses simple, non-invasive DNA extraction, to provide a rapid and inexpensive procedure for sexing chicks. We made successful application of this procedure for sexing chicken in two diagnostic cases. We further tested another pair of primers targeting chicken chromo-helicase-DNA binding (CHD) genes as well. And lastly, we used this technology to develop a PCR-based diagnostic kit with an internal control for the sex identification of gamecock chicks and embryos.
  Ke-Rong Zhang and Wu-Yi Liu
  In this study, the error correction model and econometric tests were used to empirically analyze the correlation of the income and consumption levels of rural residents during 1990-2012 in Anhui province, China, by means of the software Eviews 6.0. Based on the data generated and analyzed, the relationship between the rural consumption and income levels were confirmed and further explored. It was found that there was a statistically significant correlation between the levels of the rural income and the rural consumption from the point of view of elasticity coefficient, i.e., 0.858616, while the Pair-wise Granger causality test suggested the authors to accept the hypothesis that income precedes consumption in Anhui province. Together with the Granger causality tests, it was indicated that the elasticity of the variable X (income level) driving or promoting the variable Y (consumption level) was 0.858616 estimated in the Error Correction Model (ECM). That is to say, whenever the rural income level increases by 1%, the rural consumption level will be driven or promoted by 0.858616 in Anhui province.
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