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Articles by William R. Shankle
Total Records ( 2 ) for William R. Shankle
  William R. Shankle , Tushar Mangrola , Timothy Chan and Junko Hara
  Background The Memory Performance Index (MPI) quantifies the pattern of recalled and nonrecalled words of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Wordlist (CWL) onto a 0 to 100 scale and distinguishes normal from mild cognitive impairment with 96% to 97% accuracy. Methods In group A, 121,481 independently living individuals, 18 to 106 years old, were assessed with the CWL and classified as cognitively impaired (N = 5,971) or normal (N = 115,510). The MPI and CWL immediate free recall (IFR), delayed free recall (DFR), and total free recall (TFR) scores (the outcome measures) were each regressed against predictors of age, gender, race, education, test administration method (in-person or telephone), and wordlist used. Predictor effect sizes (Cohen's f2) were computed for each outcome. In addition, CWL plus Functional Assessment Staging Tests (FAST) were administered to 441 normal to moderately severely demented (FAST stages 1 to 6) patients (group B). Median MPI scores were tested for significant differences across FAST stage. Results For group A, the variance explained by all predictors combined was MPI = 55.0%, IFR = 24.9%, DFR = 23.4%, and TFR = 26.9%. The age effect size on MPI score was large, but it was small on IFR, DFR, and TFR. The other predictors all had negligible (<0.02) or small effect sizes (0.02 to 0.15). For group B, median MPI scores progressively declined across all FAST stages (P < .0002). Conclusions MPI score progressively declines with increasing dementia severity. Also, MPI score explains 2 to 3 times more variance than total scores, which improves ability to detect treatment effects.
  Zaven S. Khachaturian , Deborah Barnes , Richard Einstein , Sterling Johnson , Virginia Lee , Allen Roses , Mark A. Sager , William R. Shankle , Peter J. Snyder , Ronald C. Petersen , Gerard Schellenberg , John Trojanowski , Paul Aisen , Marilyn S. Albert , John C.S. Breitner , Neil Buckholtz , Maria Carrillo , Steven Ferris , Barry D. Greenberg , Michael Grundman , Ara S. Khachaturian , Lewis H. Kuller , Oscar L. Lopez , Paul Maruff , Richard C. Mohs , Marcelle Morrison- Bogorad , Creighton Phelps , Eric Reiman , Marwan Sabbagh , Mary Sano , Lon S. Schneider , Eric Siemers , Pierre Tariot , Jacques Touchon , Bruno Vellas and Lisa J. Bain
  Among the major impediments to the design of clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most critical is the lack of validated biomarkers, assessment tools, and algorithms that would facilitate identification of asymptomatic individuals with elevated risk who might be recruited as study volunteers. Thus, the Leon Thal Symposium 2009 (LTS'09), on October 27–28, 2009 in Las Vegas, Nevada, was convened to explore strategies to surmount the barriers in designing a multisite, comparative study to evaluate and validate various approaches for detecting and selecting asymptomatic people at risk for cognitive disorders/dementia. The deliberations of LTS'09 included presentations and reviews of different approaches (algorithms, biomarkers, or measures) for identifying asymptomatic individuals at elevated risk for AD who would be candidates for longitudinal or prevention studies. The key nested recommendations of LTS'09 included: (1) establishment of a National Database for Longitudinal Studies as a shared research core resource; (2) launch of a large collaborative study that will compare multiple screening approaches and biomarkers to determine the best method for identifying asymptomatic people at risk for AD; (3) initiation of a Global Database that extends the concept of the National Database for Longitudinal Studies for longitudinal studies beyond the United States; and (4) development of an educational campaign that will address public misconceptions about AD and promote healthy brain aging.
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