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Articles by William J. Walsh
Total Records ( 2 ) for William J. Walsh
  Teresa A. Evans , Sandra L. Siedlak , Liang Lu , Xiaoming Fu , Zeneng Wang , Woody R. McGinnis , Evelyn Fakhoury , Rudy J. Castellani , Stanley L. Hazen , William J. Walsh , Allen T. Lewis , Robert G. Salomon , Mark A. Smith , George Perry and Xiongwei Zhu
  Oxidative damage has been documented in the peripheral tissues of autism patients. In this study, we sought evidence of oxidative injury in autistic brain. Carboxyethyl pyrrole (CEP) and iso[4]levuglandin (iso[4]LG)E2-protein adducts, that are uniquely generated through peroxidation of docosahexaenoate and arachidonate-containing lipids respectively, and heme oxygenase-1 were detected immunocytochemically in cortical brain tissues and by ELISA in blood plasma. Significant immunoreactivity toward all three of these markers of oxidative damage in the white matter and often extending well into the grey matter of axons was found in every case of autism examined. This striking threadlike pattern appears to be a hallmark of the autistic brain as it was not seen in any control brain, young or aged, used as controls for the oxidative assays. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed neurofilament heavy chain to be a major target of CEP-modification. In contrast, in plasma from 27 autism spectrum disorder patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls we found similar levels of plasma CEP (124.5 ± 57.9 versus 110.4 ± 30.3 pmol/mL), iso[4]LGE2 protein adducts (16.7 ± 5.8 versus 13.4 ± 3.4 nmol/mL), anti-CEP (1.2 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.3) and anti-iso[4]LGE2 autoantibody titre (1.3 ± 1.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.9), and no differences between the ratio of NO2Tyr/Tyr (7.81 E-06 ± 3.29 E-06 versus 7.87 E-06 ± 1.62 E-06). These findings provide the first direct evidence of increased oxidative stress in the autistic brain. It seems likely that oxidative injury of proteins in the brain would be associated with neurological abnormalities and provide a cellular basis at the root of autism spectrum disorders.
  Jung H. Suh , William J. Walsh , Woody R. McGinnis , Allen Lewis and Bruce N. Ames
  Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that autistic children may be experiencing increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Altered immune regulation may be one contributing factor to inflammation and oxidative stress in autistic children. Sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism plays a critical role in regulating blood leukocyte functions and oxidative stress. However, it is not known whether autism impacts SAA metabolism in peripheral immune cells. To address this question, a novel liquid chromatography linked tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was used to determine the levels of SAA metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 11 healthy controls and 31 autistic children. Improved detection sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS method allowed accurate quantification using small samples. Results show that leukocytes from autistic children contained significantly lower concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (-35%; p = 0.01), and elevated levels of intracellular homocysteine content (+80%; p=0.003). Additionally, the levels of intracellular total cysteine and glutathione (GSH) were reduced by 39% (p=0.004) and 25% (p=0.01), respectively. These autism-associated changes were leukocyte specific in that no significant alterations in SAA metabolite concentrations were detected in the plasma samples. Our results provide novel evidence for altered metabolism in immune cells; furthermore, this data suggest the involvement of inflammation in autism. Dietary differences between controls and patients, however, remain a potential confounder.
 
 
 
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