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Articles by Widodo
Total Records ( 9 ) for Widodo
  Deni Firmansyah , Widodo and Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat
  Background and Objective: Squash mosaic virus (SqMV) is a seed-borne virus infecting Cucurbitaceae, including cucumber plants. The SqMV cause systemic infections in plants and it is very difficult to find the effective control strategies to reduce its spread. Chitosan and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been reported to suppress plant diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of chitosan and PGPR to reduce disease intensity caused by SqMV and enhance plant growth on cucumbers. Methodology: Cucumber cultivars was first screened by blotter test and dot immunobinding assay (DIBA) for virus detection. Application of chitosan and PGPR was given as seed treatment before planting seeds and as foliar spray or soil drench during plant growth. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA and means were separated by DMRT p<0.05. Results: Virus detection from seeds of several cucumber cultivars indicated high incidence of SqMV infection, i.e., 72.22-100%. Application of chitosan and PGPR caused delay incubation period, reduce disease severity as well as titer of virus especially on generative phase (4-7 weeks after planting). In addition, chitosan and PGPR application increased plant growth especially plant height. Conclusion: Application of chitosan and PGPR as individual or combination treatment effectively enhanced plant growth and suppressed disease severity. Therefore, application of chitosan and PGPR should be recommended to control disease caused by SqMV on cucumber.
  Widodo and Sri Hendrastuti Hidayat
  Background and Objective: Anthracnose disease on chili pepper caused by Colletotrichum spp. is known as one of the devastated disease world-wide including Indonesia. This study was carried out to identify Colletotrichum species recovered from chili pepper fruits with anthracnose symptoms collected from some areas in Indonesia through morphological and molecular approaches. Materials and Methods: Infected fruit samples showed anthracnose symptom from several areas were isolated and purified using single spore methods. All of the isolates were then characterized based on conidial shape and colony color. The effect of temperature on the radial growth of six of the isolates represented three conidial morphotypes was determined. Results: Ninety seven single-spore isolates of Colletotrichum from chili pepper fruits were identified as C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici based on morphological characters and/or polymerase chain reaction using species-specific primer. All isolates identified as C. acutatum produced tapering conidia and developed orange colony color. Meanwhile, conidia of isolates identified as C. gloeosporioides showed cylindrical shape with rounded on both ends and developed grey or olive gray colony colors. Among Colletotrichum species collected in this study, C. capsici was easily differentiated from two other species by its typical falcate conidial shape. Of the 6 tested isolates representing three species, C. acutatum showed the slowest growth rate in plate culture on potato dextrose agar. Conclusion: Out of 97 isolates collected in this study, C. acutatum was the most common species recovered from several chili pepper areas in Indonesia, then followed by C. capsici and C. gloeosporioides, respectively.
  This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entre preneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java Province. The sampling method is “Purposive sampling” by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 year and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7%) of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of the AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that; the first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharingis by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through theknowledge exploitation built byrisk-takingare by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return), a high courage for the action snecessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potentil opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built bya pro-activeare by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed bytechnology, launching product selectively and system atically search fornew ideas. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the in novativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products, the implementation of new technology and market development.
  Kesi Widjajanti and Widodo
  This study aims to analyze the correlation of organizational learning, knowledge sharing and human capital and its effect on organizational innovation then, create a development model for organizational innovation-based on human capital, knowledge sharing and organizational learning for SMEs in semarang. The population of this study is all leaders of SMEs in Semarang City with a number of 150 respondents. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. To analyze the data in this study, it is used the Structural Equation Model (SEM) of AMOS 5.0 software package. The findings of this study conclude that to improve organizational innovation based on human capital, knowledge sharing and organizational learning is through: first, organizational innovation must be built by human capital; second, organizational innovation must be built by a knowledge sharing and third, organizational innovation must be built by organizational learning.
  Ismiarti , Yustina Yuni Suranindyah and Widodo
  Background and Objective: In Indonesia, smallholder dairy farms contribute 20.37% of domestic market. A small portion of these farms is from goat dairy farms that are traditionally managed with poor sanitation during milking and improper storage management. This system causes contamination that can affect consumer health and cause financial loss. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of goat milk obtained under different milking systems at a smallholder dairy farm in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from 20 crossbred dairy goats divided into two groups: Group A and B. In Group A, milking was conducted manually. In Group B, milking was conducted using a bucket milking machine. Total Plate Count (TPC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae (EB), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella were assessed. Data obtained were analyzed using a t-test. Results: The results showed that TPC and EB were higher in Group A than in Group B. In Groups A and B, 80% (8/10) of samples contained STEC and 30% (3/10) contained Salmonella. Phylogenetic analysis showed that partial sequencing of amplified genomic DNA using stx1 primers had more than 90% similarity with several sequences of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain Shiga toxin subunit 1A (stx1A) and Shiga toxin subunit 1B (stx1B). Moreover, partial sequencing of amplified genomic DNA using 16S rRNA primers had more than 90% similarity with several sequences of S. enterica. Conclusion: The results conclude that hygienic and sanitary practices in smallholder dairy goat farming are still poor as shown by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.
  Tri Rapani Febbiyanti , Suryo Wiyono , Sudirman Yahya and Widodo
  Background and Objectives: Stem canker diseases of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a new disease and as so far not reported yet in Indonesia. Now-a-days the occurrence of this disease is increasing by time. The objectives of this study were: (1) To determine the causative agent of stem canker and (2) To characterize the morphology and molecular properties of the pathogen. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Sembawa Research Laboratory, Rubber Research Center, South Sumatera and mycology Laboratory, IPB Plant Protection Department, from January, 2014-January, 2016. This research was conducted in three stages, namely, 1: Morphological identification based on the form of colonies and conidia as a reference used Barnet and Hunter identification keys and confirmed with previous studies, 2: Molecular identification using ITS 4 and ITS5 primers and sequence analysis using the BLAST program at www.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov website and 3: Pathogenicity test using Koch’s postulate. Results: The result showed that morphology observation and molecular identification indicated that pathogen causing stem canker disease on rubber was Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The result of pathogenicity test showed that there was similarity of symptoms that arise between artificial inoculation and natural symptoms in the field. Another similarity that was also seen was the appearance of the fruiting body on the infected part. Conclusion: Lasiodiplodia theobromae was a pathogen causing stem canker disease on rubber tree, proven by morphology, molecular identification and Koch's postulates.
  Dina Tri Marya , Nurliyani , Widodo and Sunarti
  Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological and chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of fermented milk produced by different starter combinations. Materials and Methods: Nine combinations of starter produced fermented dairy products using single-starter Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), a combination of starter LAB and a combination of starter LAB and yeast. The starter combinations were as follows: Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, L. plantarum Dad 13+Lactococcus lactis, L. plantarum Dad 13+Saccharomyces cerevisiae, L. plantarum Dad 13+Kluyveromyces marxianus, L. plantarum Dad 13+L. lactis+S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum Dad 13+L. lactis+K. marxianus, L. lactis, L. lactis+S. cerevisiae and L. lactis+K. marxianus. Total LAB and yeast were analyzed using the Total Plate Count (TPC) method. Chemical characteristics were identified by the values of pH, titratable acidity and ethanol contents. Antioxidant activities were determined by calculating the percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging. Results: Present study showed that the combination of starters did not differ significantly across total LAB and yeast. However, there were significantly differences in pH, acidity, alcohol, β-carotene and antioxidant activity. The fermented milk obtained from L. plantarum Dad 13+L. lactis+K. marxianus had the lowest pH and the highest acidity and alcohol content. The combination L. plantarum Dad 13+L. lactis+S. cerevisiae produced the maximum β-carotene content and the combination of L. plantarum Dad 13+ L. lactis+S. cerevisiae had the best antioxidant activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that a combination of starter L. plantarum Dad 13, L. lactis and S. cerevisiae can be used to improve the chemical quality and antioxidant activity of fermented milk.
  Nur Kusmiyati , Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih and Widodo
  Background and Objective: A prebiotic is a non-digestible food component that supports the growth of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract, thus providing beneficial effects to the host. One commercially available prebiotic is inulin, produced from Jerusalem artichokes and chicory. A previous study reported that the inulin from dahlia tubers is of better quality due to the presence of soluble and insoluble fibres. Due to its potential, inulin from dahlia tubers has been increasingly tested for its capability as a prebiotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the prebiotic effects of inulin and inulin extract from dahlia tubers on the viability of Lactobacillus casei AP and representative Enterobacteriaceae and to measure the prebiotic index and production of short-chain fatty acids. Methodology: This study focused on the combined effect of a prebiotic (inulin or inulin extract from dahlia tubers) and a probiotic, L. casei AP, which originated in a human gastrointestinal tract. This combination resulted in the growth suppression of pathogenic bacteria, the growth promotion of the probiotic and a high prebiotic index. The combination of L. casei AP and inulin/inulin extract, which was defined as a synbiotic, was also evaluated for the growth suppression of H. pylori and S. dysenteriae. Results: The L. casei AP had a higher growth rate in the presence of inulin extract or inulin than MRS did. Co-culturing E. coli and L. casei AP in media containing inulin extract suppressed the growth of E. coli and simultaneously resulted in the highest prebiotic index, at 4.70. The synbiotic effect of inulin extract together with L. casei AP was stronger in suppressing the growth of S. dysenteriae than of H. pylori. This inhibition was concomitant with the production of short-chain fatty acids, lactate, propionate, propionate and butyrate, which contributed to lowering the pH in the media. During fermentation, lactate was produced at the highest concentration (33.83-35.53%), followed by acetate (9.83-10.35%), propionate (0.05-0.45%) and butyrate (0.03-0.49%). Conclusion: Inulin extract from dahlia tubers acts very well as a prebiotic by supporting the growth of probiotic L. casei AP and suppressing the growth of the pathogens S. dysenteriae and H. pylori, resulting in a high prebiotic effect.
  Widodo , Ari Surya Sukarno , Kafaah Estancia , Donny Widianto and Indratiningsih
  Background and Objective: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a bioactive compound that can be synthesized by probiotics. The goals of this study were to detect CLA production in milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei strain AG and to measure the transcription levels of CLA synthesis-associated genes. Materials and Methods: CLA in fermented milk was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The predicted homologous of the cla-hy, cla-dh and cla-dc genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification. For CLA analysis, bacterial cultures were grown in media with or without the addition of 0.4 mg mL–1 linoleic acid. Results: Amplification products of the partial cla-hy, cla-dh and cla-dc homologous of the L. casei strain AG were obtained. The addition of linoleic acid did not change the transcription level of these genes compared to the control (p>0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus casei strain AG produced CLA in fermented milk but the genes involved in CLA synthesis were not induced by linoleic acid.
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