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Articles by Widanarni
Total Records ( 14 ) for Widanarni
  Dewi Nurhayati , Widanarni and Munti Yuhana
  The experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary administration of probiotic SKT-b (Vibrio alginolyticus ) and oligosaccharide from sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L. ) on growth performance and immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp (0.33±0.02 g) was fed with basal diet (control without challenge test (-) and control with challenge test (+)), supplemented with combination of probiotic and prebiotic (probiotic 0.5% + prebiotic 1% (A), probiotic 1% + prebiotic 2% (B), probiotic 2% + prebiotic 4% (C)) for 30 days of culture. After feeding experiment, five shrimp per tank were sampled for bacterial quantification and immunity determination. Then all the shrimp rest were challenged by infectious myonecrosis virus and V. harveyi. After 30 days, Daily Growth Rate (DGR) and Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) of the shrimp were significantly better in treatment B than the control but weren’t significantly different (p>0.05) in other treatment. Other than that, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and Total Haemocyte Count (THC) of the shrimp in all synbiotic treatments were higher from the control group. After co-infection challenged test, PO, THC and Respiratory Burst (RB) activity of the shrimp in all synbiotic treatments were higher from control (+). Besides that, lowest survival shrimp occurred in the control (+) was significantly different compared with all synbiotic treatments.
  Maulid Wahid Yusuf , Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo , Munti Yuhana and Widanarni
  This study was conducted to study growth performance of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in biofloc-based super intensive culture added Bacillus sp. cells addition. Biofloc cultured in separated aquarium (100 L) was used as source of inocula for cultivation for C. gariepinus (average body weight of 2.3±0.12 g fish–1). Different concentration of Bacillus sp., cells was included in diets and in the media, i.e., (A) 102 CFU mL–1, (B) 104 CFU mL–1, (C) 106 CFU mL–1, biofloc without Bacillus sp., cells addition (K+), without biofloc as well as Bacillus sp., cells addition (K‾, control). Results showed that the Survival Rate (SR) of catfish showed significantly different between Bacillus sp., cells addition and control (p<0.05). Growth and feed conversion ratios in Bacillus sp., cells addition were better than that of the controls. Nutrient content of biofloc containing 106 CFU mL–1 showed the highest protein value of 34.06%. Total bacterial cells abundance were ranging from 106-108 CFU mL–1 cells, with or without the addition of Bacillus sp., as a control. The highest performance of catfish growth was obtained using biofloc treatment by 106 CFU mL–1 Bacillus sp., addition compare to other treatment.
  Rifqi Tamamdusturi , Widanarni and Munti Yuhana
  A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of administration of microencapsulated probiotic Bacillus sp. NP5 and prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) for the prevention of Aeromonas hydrophila infection on Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Pangasius with initial body weight of 6.54±0.17 g were stocked into 40 L aquariums with a stocking density of 10 fish per aquarium. Control (C) diet (no addition of Bacillus sp. NP5 and MOS), probiotic Bacillus sp. NP5 1% (10 g kg–1), prebiotic MOS 0.2% (2 g kg–1) and synbiotic (probiotic Bacillus sp. NP5 1%+prebiotic MOS 0.2%). Then 10 fish of each aquarium were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that fish with synbiotic supplementation resulted the highest Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) and those were significantly different (p<0.05) from the other treatment. The immune responses showed that fish fed with the control diet resulted the lowest hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell count and those were significantly different from the probiotic and prebiotic group (p<0.05). White blood cell count, phagocytic activity and respiratory burst activity of the fish fed with probiotic 1% and MOS 0.2% were not significantly different from control. Moreover, fish fed with diet supplemented with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic had notably lower mortality after 10 days infected with A. hydrophila (p<0.05). Dietary Bacillus sp. NP5 and MOS had a significant interaction on enhancing immune responses and growth performances of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (p<0.05).
  Dwi Febrianti , Munti Yuhana and Widanarni
  White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating shrimp pathogen which causes up to 70-90% mortality in commercial shrimp farming. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of synbiotic microcapsule (Bacillus NP5 RfR and mannan oligosaccharide combination) feed supplementation on the immune responses and growth performance of WSSV infected Pacific white shrimp. Shrimps (4.411±0.395 g) were cultured and fed by pellet containing synbiotic microcapsule at different dosages for 30 days, i.e., designated as 0.5% (M1), 1% (M2), 2% (M3) (w/w) and without synbiotic microcapsule addition (negative and positive controls). The synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method. Challenge test was performed at 31st of cultivation day by performing intramuscular injection of WSSV filtrate (104 copies mL–1). Compared with control, the shrimp fed by M2 and M3 were found to have higher (p<0.05) value of Total Hemocyte Count (THC), pro Phenol Oxidase (proPO) and Respiratory Burst (RB) activity compared to positive control. The results showed that the Specific Growth Rate (SGR) of M1 and M2 were higher (p<0.05) than controls. Yet, the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were lower (p<0.05) than controls. Above all, the survival rate of shrimps fed with microcapsule synbiotic were higher (p<0.05) than controls.
  Diah Ayu Satyari Utami , Widanarni and M. Agus Suprayudi
  The main things that need to be considered in the preparation of probiotics are viability during preparation and storage which are the disadvantages of the use of fresh culture probiotics. Dried probiotic can be applied through the feed, easy to be applied, and has a long shelf life, but application of dried probiotic in aquaculture is still not widely studied. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of dried Bacillus NP5 as the probiotic through in vitro assays and determine the best dose for the growth performance of tilapia. The treatment of in vitro assays including the production of dried probiotic without using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (NS); freeze drying method (NF); with using of the coating material and dried by spray drying method (WS); freeze drying method (WF). The treatment which showed the best result at in vitro assays was applied for in vivo assays. The in vivo assays containing 4 treatments and 5 replicates which were control (K) and the administration of dried Bacillus NP5 RfR (1010 CFU g-1) in feed with dose of 0.5% (A), 1% (B) and 2% (C). The fish fed 3 times a day by at satiation for 28 days. Probiotic that encapsulated by maltodextrin and dried by spray drying method that stored in room temperature had the higher percentage product, viability after drying process, and storage. The administration of 0.5% dried Bacillus NP5 showed the best growth performance in tilapia.
  Widanarni and Tanbiyaskur
  One of the fish diseases that is becoming the main problem in tilapia culture is streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Application of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic are expected to be an alternative for controlling the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the administration of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic through artificial feed to control streptococcosis in tilapia. This study consisted of five treatments with three replications, namely positive control, negative control; 1% probiotic treatment; 2% prebiotic treatment and synbiotic treatment (1% probiotic and 2% prebiotic). Results showed that fish survival rate before the challenge test for all treatments was between 95 and 100%. Growth and feed conversion ratios in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were better than that of the controls. After the challenge test, the fish survival rate in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were 74.08, 74.08 and 85.19%, respectively; whereas, in the positive control it was only 18.52%. Results showed that S. agalactiae bacteria could be found in the brain, kidney, liver and eyes. The number of S. agalactiae bacteria and the damage level of various target organs in probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments were lower than that of positive control.
  Rini Marlida , Muhammad Agus Suprayudi , Widanarni and Enang Harris
  This research aimed to investigate biological responses of humpback grouper (C. altivelis) supplied by synbiotic supplement, which are growth, digestive enzyme activity and health status. Probiotic applied was isolated from humpback grouper digestive tract and screened for amilolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activities; while prebiotic was obtained from the extracts of sweet potato (Ipoemea batatas). The experiments comprised of four combination of synbiotics containing 1% probiotic candidate in treatment RM3, RM4, RM5, RM7 + 2% prebiotic and one control (without symbiotic) supplementation. Each synbiotic treatment was added with 2% egg white to bind all ingredients together. Completely randomized design with three replicates was applied for the experiment during 40 days rearing period. The result indicated that treatment with synbiotics were significantly different (p<0.05) in protein and total digestibility as compared to control group, whereas treatment RM4 and RM7 had the best result in weight gain (ΔW), specific growth rate (SGR), protein retention, feed conversion ratio, RNA/DNA ratio, in comparison to treatment RM3, RM5 and without synbiotic. Application of synbiotic treatment combination of 1% probiotic RM4 + 2% prebiotic also showed enhancement of digestive enzyme activity (amylase, protease and lipase), biochemical plasma (glucose and triglyceride) and haematology parameter (haemoglobin, hematocrit and phagocytic activity).
  Achmad Noerkhaerin Putra , Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo and Widanarni
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of tilapia which were given probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic through feed. The probiotic bacteria used was selected from Np 1, Np 3 and Np 5. The prebiotic was extracted from sweet potato var. sukuh, while the synbiotic was a combination between a probiotic and prebiotic. This study was conducted in two phases, the in vitro probiotics and prebiotics synergism test and the in vivo feeding trial of selected probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic to tilapia. The in vivo assays had four treatments with three replications, i.e., (A) control, (B) probiotic 1% (v/w), (C) prebiotic 2% (v/w) and (D) synbiotic (probiotic 1% (v/w)+prebiotic 2% (v/w)). Results of the in vitro assays showed that the three probiotic isolates could grow in media containing the prebiotics and Np 5 isolate demonstrated the best growth. In the in vivo assays, the application of the synbiotic resulted in the best growth rate, feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activity, feed digestibility and nutrient retention compared to the control and the other treatments.
  Ricky Djauhari , Widanarni , Sukenda , Muhammad Agus Suprayudi and Muhammad Zairin Jr.
  Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) extract on the growth performance and health status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) before and after being infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Materials and Methods: Prebiotic was supplemented through feed (0.5, 1 and 2% v/w) for 30 days. The parameters observed during prebiotic supplementation included the populations of the dominant bacterial species in the intestines, digestive enzymes activity, growth performance and immune responses of the fish. On day 32, a challenge test using the pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophila was carried out and fish resistance was determined by counting the survival rate of the fish at day 45. Results: Feed containing prebiotic supplementation at a dose of 2% showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on Total Viable Bacterial Count (TVBC) in the fish intestines and on protease activity and resulted in the best value for daily growth rate and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) when compared with the control and other treatment groups. The predominant bacteria growing in the fish intestines were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus kloosii, Staphylococcus hominis and Aeromonas veronii. At the end of the feeding trial with prebiotic supplementation, the values of total leukocytes and phagocytic activities in the fish receiving 2% prebiotic were higher than controls. The survival rates of common carp after the challenge test in the 1 and 2% prebiotic treatments groups were 87.5 and 100%, respectively, while that of fish without prebiotic supplementation was only 50%. Conclusion: These results indicate that prebiotic supplementation for common carp has positive effects on the growth performance and health status of common carp infected by A. hydrophila and the best result was obtained with a 2% prebiotic supplementation.
  Achmad Noerkhaerin Putra and Widanarni
  The present study was aimed to obtain amylolytic bacteria probiotic to improve feed digestibility and growth performance in tilapia. All of the bacteria were isolated from the digestive tract of tilapia. The probiotic bacteria candidates were screened for amylolytic activity, bacterial growth rate, the resistance to acid and alkali, antagonistic activity, attachment and pathogenicity in tilapia. The selected isolates were then tested in vivo to observe their ability to improve feed digestibility and growth performance in tilapia. Two treatments with four replicates consisted of the control (without any probiotic) (A) and the probiotic (B) at a dose of 1% v/w feed were administered every day for 60 days. There were 41 isolates which secreted amylase and the five isolates with the largest diameter of the clear zone were NP1, NP2, NP3, NP4 and NP5. Isolate NP5 demonstrated the best results: It had amylolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of 20.3 cm, it grew rapidly with a generation time of 33.59 min, it had antagonistic properties against the pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus sp., with the inhibition zones of 12.0 and 11.0 cm, respectively. It had the ability to adhere to stainless steel plates and it was not pathogenic to tilapia. The feeding trial in tilapia showed that the probiotic treatment resulted in better feed digestibility and growth performance than those of the control.
  Widanarni , Tita Nopitawati and Dedi Jusadi
  This study aimed to get the probiotics bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract which had protease, amylase and lipase activities to improve growth performances of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The probiotics were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Pacific white shrimp. The in vitro assays were carried out to isolate probiotics bacteria and selected the candidates based on digestive enzymes production (protease, amylase and lipase), resistance to gastric acid and bile salts, rapid bacterial growth phase, antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria, the attachment ability and pathogenicity to Pacific white shrimp. The selected isolates were then tested in vivo to observe their ability to improve growth performances of white shrimp. Five treatments with three replications consisted of control (feed without addition of any probiotic) and addition of four selected probiotics. Probiotics in a dose of 1% (v/w) feed were added every day for 60 days. Based on the results of in vitro selection, there were four selected isolates then applied to white shrimp including K9, M2, Z3 and S3. These four isolates have the highest ability in protein hydrolysis (K9), starch hydrolysis (M2), lipid hydrolysis (Z3) and protein, starch and lipid hydrolysis (S3). In addition, these isolates were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline condition, had antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria (V. harveyi), had the ability to adhere and not pathogenic for Pacific white shrimp. The feeding trial showed that isolate K9 showed the best results in improving protein digestibility (79.93±1.37%), protein retention (46.97±3.27%) and growth of Pacific white shrimp (1.09±0.01%).
  Lukman Anugrah Agung , Widanarni and Munti Yuhana
  Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the fish pathogen which can cause mortality up to 90% in commercial tilapia farms. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation of micro-encapsulated probiotic (Bacillus NP5), prebiotic (MOS) and combination of those materials (synbiotic) through the feed on growth performances and immune responses of tilapia infected with S. agalactiae. The probiotic cells were encapsulated by spray drying method. The experimental fish were reared for 40 days and fed with feed-supplemented with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic and without any supplementation to the feed (positive and negative control). On day 40, all fish except negative control were challenged by S. agalactiae via intraperitoneal route injection in amount of 0.1 mL (106 CFU mL–1). This study showed that administration of 0.4% prebiotic to the feed resulted the best growth performance in the end of feeding trial and survival rate after the challenge test with S. agalactiae.
  Ricky Djauhari , Widanarni , Sukenda , Muhammad Agus Suprayudi and Muhammad Zairin Jr.
  This study aimed to characterize Bacillus sp. NP5 and to evaluate the effectiveness of its application as a probiotic on growth performances and health status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) before and after infected by Aeromonas hydrophila . Bacillus sp. NP5 cells were given to common carps through the feed for 30 days at doses of 106, 108 and 1010 CFU g–1 feed. On day 31, common carps were challenged with A. hydrophila , which was injected via intramuscular route. Result of phenotypic and genotypic identification of Bacillus sp. NP5 isolate showed that this isolate was Bacillus cereus with 99% of similarity index. Bacillus sp. NP5 was able to produce protease, amylase and lipase, it was also potential to inhibit A. hydrophila, Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Supplementation of feed containing probiotic at a dose of 1010 CFU g–1 feed resulted a higher total bacterial count and a higher total probiotic count in the intestine, those followed with higher value of amylase, protease and lipase activity, along with the highest daily growth rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Total leukocytes and phagocytic activity in probiotic treatment with a dose of 1010 CFU g–1 feed was higher (p<0.05) compared to controls at the end of the rearing period over 30 days. Common carps fed probiotic showed survival rates after the challenge test with values ranging between 81-100%, while the survival rate of fish without probiotic supplementation was only 50%. The results of this study showed that probiotic supplementation on common carp could reduce the pathogenicity of disease caused by A. hydrophila infection, which indicated an improvement in cellular immune response.
  Hamsah , Widanarni , Alimuddin , Munti Yuhana and M. Zairin Junior
  Background and Objective: The application of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics is commonly applied in juvenile and adult shrimp administered through artificial feed, while in larvae, it has still been limited. This study aimed to evaluate growth performance, the total intestinal bacteria, the activity of enzymes and the survival rate of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) administered Pseudoalteromonas piscicida 1Ub, mannan-oligosaccharides and synbiotic (the combination of P. piscicida 1Ub and mannan-oligosaccharides) through bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp. Materials and Methods: Bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp. was done by adding P. piscicida 1Ub 106 CFU mL–1, mannan-oligosaccharides 12 mg L–1 and synbiotic (P. piscicida 1Ub 106 CFU mL–1 and mannan-oligosaccharides 12 mg L–1) to the rearing medium of Artemia sp., for 4 h. The administration of the enriched Artemia sp. to the shrimp larvae was done from mysis 3 to Post Larvae (PL) 12. The body length and the body weight of Pacific white shrimp larvae were observed at the beginning and the end of the study, while RNA/DNA ratio, the activity of enzymes, survival rate and total bacteria of shrimp larvae were analyzed at the end of the study. Results: The results showed that daily growth rate, absolute length, RNA/DNA ratio, the activity of enzymes, survival rate and total bacteria of shrimp larvae administered probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic were higher (p<0.05) than the control. The synbiotic treatment gave the best results in daily growth rate (24.39±0.31%), absolute length (13.00±0.50 mm), RNA/DNA ratio (0.6369±0.0094 μg mL–1), the activity of enzymes (protease 0.033±0.0007, lipase 0.047±0.0010, amylase 0.853±0.008, mannanase 0.148±0.004 U mL–1 min–1), survival rate (92.67±1.26%) and total bacteria (6.7×107 CFU larvae–1). Conclusion: The administration of P. piscicida 1Ub, mannan-oligosaccharides and synbiotic through bio-encapsulation of Artemia sp., effectively improved the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp larvae with the best results demonstrated by the synbiotic treatment.
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