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Articles by Wei Wang
Total Records ( 42 ) for Wei Wang
  Wei Wang , Leslie M. Shor , Eugene J. LeBoeuf , John P. Wikswo , Gary L. Taghon and David S. Kosson
  Microfluidic devices permit direct observation of microbial behavior in defined microstructured settings. Here, the swimming speed and dispersal of individual marine ciliates in straight and bent microfluidic channels were quantified. The dispersal rate and swimming speed increased with channel width, decreased with protozoan size, and was significantly impacted by the channel turning angle.
  Anru Wang , Fenghua Liu , Zhepeng Wang , Xue Jiang , Wei Wang , Kedao Teng and Jianqin Xu
  The purpose of this study was to establish a model of avian viral disease for antiviral drug discovery and development. A Chinese IBDV strain BC6/85 was inoculated into 5-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) male White Leghorn chicken and the clinicopathologic features of disease were compared with those reported before. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanized sequentially with collection of tissues. Tissues were examined by histopathology to observe microscopic lesions, by immunohistochemistry to detect viral protein, by electron microscope to observe ultrastructural changes of the plical epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius and by flow cytometry to detect apoptosis in bursal lymphocytes. Comparing of mean body weight gains and bursal weight indices between control group and virus inoculated groups, significant decreases are displayed. It was observed that the young chickens infected developed the typical histopathological changes of disease. The bursa of Fabricius revealed lesions characteristic of infectious bursal disease and virus particles identical to IBDV were found in the necrotic cells of the follicles. The mucosal surface of the bursal plica was erosion, ulceration and became smooth in the infected chicken groups. And the apoptotic cells were increased after 2 days of the virus inoculation. Morphologically, we clearly demonstrated that replication of IBDV in the bursa during the acute phase of infection and provided new information on the pathogenesis of IBDV.
  Ahmed S. Attia , Jennifer L. Sedillo , Wei Wang , Wei Liu , Chad A. Brautigam , Wade Winkler and Eric J. Hansen
  The Hfq protein is recognized as a global regulatory molecule that facilitates certain RNA-RNA interactions in bacteria. BLAST analysis identified a 630-nucleotide open reading frame in the genome of Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 43617 that was highly conserved among M. catarrhalis strains and which encoded a predicted protein with significant homology to the Hfq protein of Escherichia coli. This protein, containing 210 amino acids, was more than twice as large as the Hfq proteins previously described for other bacteria. The C-terminal half of the M. catarrhalis Hfq protein was very hydrophilic and contained two different types of amino acid repeats. A mutation in the M. catarrhalis hfq gene affected both the growth rate of this organism and its sensitivity to at least two different types of stress in vitro. Provision of the wild-type M. catarrhalis hfq gene in trans eliminated these phenotypic differences in the hfq mutant. This M. catarrhalis hfq mutant exhibited altered expression of some cell envelope proteins relative to the wild-type parent strain and also had a growth advantage in a continuous flow biofilm system. The presence of the wild-type M. catarrhalis hfq gene in trans in an E. coli hfq mutant fully reversed the modest growth deficiency of this E. coli mutant and partially reversed the stress sensitivity of this E. coli mutant to methyl viologen. The use of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that this M. catarrhalis Hfq protein could bind RNA derived from a gene whose expression was altered in the M. catarrhalis hfq mutant.
  Michael J. Brooks , Jennifer L. Sedillo , Nikki Wagner , Wei Wang , Ahmed S. Attia , Henry Wong , Cassie A. Laurence , Eric J. Hansen and Scott D. Gray-Owen
  The Moraxella catarrhalis ubiquitous surface proteins (UspAs) are autotransporter molecules reported to interact with a variety of different host proteins and to affect processes ranging from serum resistance to cellular adhesion. The role of UspA1 as an adhesin has been confirmed with a number of different human cell types and is mediated by binding to eukaryotic proteins including carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), fibronectin, and laminin. A distinct difference in the ability of prototypical M. catarrhalis strains to adhere to CEACAM-expressing cell lines prompted us to perform strain-specific structure-function analyses of UspA1 proteins. In this study, we characterized CEACAM binding by a diverse set of UspA1 proteins and showed that 3 out of 10 UspA1 proteins were incapable of binding CEACAM. This difference resulted from the absence of a distinct CEACAM binding motif in nonadhering strains. Our sequence analysis also revealed a single M. catarrhalis isolate that lacked the fibronectin-binding motif and was defective in adherence to Chang conjunctival epithelial cells. These results clearly demonstrate that UspA1-associated adhesive functions are not universally conserved. Instead, UspA1 proteins must be considered as variants with the potential to confer both different cell tropisms and host cell responses.
  Michael J. Brooks , Jennifer L. Sedillo , Nikki Wagner , Cassie A. Laurence , Wei Wang , Ahmed S. Attia , Eric J. Hansen and Scott D. Gray-Owen
  Ubiquitous surface protein A molecules (UspAs) of Moraxella catarrhalis are large, nonfimbrial, autotransporter proteins that can be visualized as a "fuzzy" layer on the bacterial surface by transmission electron microscopy. Previous studies attributed a wide array of functions and binding activities to the closely related UspA1, UspA2, and/or UspA2H protein, yet the molecular and phylogenetic relationships among these activities remain largely unexplored. To address this issue, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the uspA1 genes from a variety of independent M. catarrhalis isolates and compared the deduced amino acid sequences to those of the previously characterized UspA1, UspA2, and UspA2H proteins. Rather than being conserved proteins, we observed a striking divergence of individual UspA1, UspA2, and UspA2H proteins resulting from the modular assortment of unrelated "cassettes" of peptide sequence. The exchange of certain variant cassettes correlates with strain-specific differences in UspA protein function and confers differing phenotypes upon these mucosal surface pathogens.
  Honggang Wang , Dongming Peng , Wei Wang and Hamid Sharif
  Wei Wang , Dongming Peng , Jong-Hoon Youn , Honggang Wang and Hamid Sharif
  In this study, we propose a cross layer joint routing and MAC-PHY design to achieve energy balance and energy efficiency simultaneously in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The energy balanced routing distributes the levels of residue energy evenly throughout the network, while the optimal transmission power control achieves further energy savings by adjusting transmission power to meet communication quality requirement at the receiver. Further more, we have implemented the proposed approach into TinyOS component running on Tmote-Sky sensor nodes. The results of our experimental study clearly show that the proposed the cross layer approach with energy balanced routing scheme and optimal power control improves energy efficiency while achieving energy balance as well.
  Lejiang Guo , Bingwen Wang , Zhuo Liu and Wei Wang
  Because of the limited energy in wireless sensor networks, the research on routing technology on the network layer is pivotal in the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Aiming at the defect problem of the clustering network, this study presents an energy equilibrium routing algorithm based on Cluster-head Prediction for Wireless Sensor Networks (CP-EERP). The algorithm uses the cluster-head prediction mechanism which improves cluster-head lifetime, balances the energy between nodes and prolongs the network lifetime. CP-EERP includes network initialization phase, cluster building phase, data transmission phase and cluster-head prediction phase. The simulation result shows that the algorithm performs better, in terms of power efficiency and the number of communication neighbors, than the classic routing algorithm.
  Wei Wang , Bingwen Wang , Zhuo Liu and Lejiang Guo
  In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), it is of great importance for fault diagnosis in the WSNs to ensure the accuracy of the information collected from the network, for the low cost and the deployment of a large number of sensor nodes in uncontrolled or harsh or hostile environments. In this study, we have presented a protocol, named CRFDA (Cluster-Based Real-time Fault Diagnosis aggregation algorithm for WSNs), which is based on the comparison approach aiming at achieving a correct and complete diagnosis for hierarchical WSNs. CRFDA is based on clustering in the network which can be carried out simultaneously in all cluster. Besides, it is a real-time diagnosis method and can be spontaneously implemented in each round. It is known from CRFDA that both hard and soft faults can be diagnosed correctly in the finite time. Algorithm correctness, communication complexity and time complexity proofs are presented in this study. Compared with other existing protocols, CRFDA performs better. We have also developed a simulator by NS-2 (using LEACH) to analyze the correctness of our algorithm. The simulation results show that our algorithm is a correct and efficient fault diagnosis algorithm in WSNs.
  Wei Wang , Bingwen Wang , Zhuo Liu , Lejiang Guo and Wei Xiong
  In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), since the network consists of low-cost sensor nodes with finite battery power, power efficient strategies must be applied for data transmission in order to prolong the network lifetime. It is important to minimize the total energy consumption in each round so that the network lifetime is maximized. In this study, we have proposed a new energy efficient protocol, named CTPEDCA (Cluster-Based and Tree-Based Power Efficient Data Collection and Aggregation Protocol for WSNs), which using the full distributed in hierarchical WSNs. CTPEDCA is based on clustering and Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) routing strategy for cluster heads. We use the MST to improve the transmission routing mechanism between the cluster heads so that let only one cluster head communicate directly with the faraway base station in each round. The simulation results show that CTPEDCA is better than LEACH; CTPEDCA can more balance the energy consumption of all nodes, particularly as the cluster head nodes in each round and prolong the lifetime of the networks. It is worth to note that our algorithm is very fast, its time complexity is O(ElogV), where V is the set of cluster heads, therefore, the time complexity is small.
  Lejiang Guo , Bingwen Wang , Wei Wang , Zhuo Liu and Chao Gao
  Wireless sensor network is a complex wireless network (WSN) which has a large number of network nodes. Based on neural network theory and methods, this study uses neuron to describe the WSN node and constructs neural network model for WSN. The neural network model includes three aspects: WSN node neuron model, WSN node control model and WSN node connection model. In order to maximize the network life-cycle, this study analyzes Hopfield method and proposes the general design method and procedure of energy function. It discusses the relationship between network equilibrium and the minimum point of energy function. The result shows that the neural model of wireless sensor networks brings convenience for WSN and provides a certain theoretical foundation for the applications of the neural networks.
  Wei Wei , Jing Zhang , Hongye Li , Jie Hu , Wei Wang , Xiaoyan Yin , Feng Wang , Xin Song , Zhixiao Wang , Yongchao Wang , Peiyi Shen and Jiachen Geng
  This system uses Mitsubishi PLC and computer configuration screen monitoring control mode, press the button or picture can complete automobile access process, simple operation, easy access. Control circuit of traditional way by ac contactor, safe and reliable operation. Through the configuration software, database construction, the animation process control, connection and debugging, realized the monitoring system of three-dimensional garage. Finally discusses in detail the design of control system based on the two layers of garage structure for three models. Finally discusses in detail the design of control system based on the two layers of garage structure for three models. Lift the solid carport, its part can be divided into three parts: the garage structure parts, motivation and control system is part. According to lift the operating principle of the solid carport, on the fluctuation of three-dimensional garage control system design, uses the advanced PLC control, using the software Mitsubishi of lifting the solid carport control procedures, commissioning, operation and proved by using the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) as the control system is simple.
  NaQi , Wei Wei , Jing Zhang , Wei Wang , Jinwei Zhao , Junhuai Li , Peiyi Shen , Xiaoyan Yin , Xiangrong Xiao and Jie Hu
  With the continuous development of society and the prevalence of computer and network technology. How to ensure the security of information in the course of transmission have become the most important things for people at present. With this background, we studied how to realize encryption and decryption of the RSA (Initials of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamirh, LenAdleman) encryption technology. This study mainly introduces the application of RSA algorithm in encryption and decryption, mentions the technology of digital signature. Also introduces in the process of implementation of RSA algorithm in Visual Studios environment and operation results. Using this system for encryption and decryption of information, theoretically, good results were obtained in safety and reliability.
  Sun Wei , Wei Wei , Jing Zhang , Wei Wang , Jinwei Zhao , Junhuai Li , Peiyi Shen , Xiaoyan Yin , Xiangrong Xiao and Jie Hu
  In recent years, with the development of data warehouse and Web technology, more and more attention has been paid to multiple applications of the data in warehouse. However, data quality issue is one of the biggest obstacles to the success using of data warehouse project for many enterprises. So a data audit model is proposed and the relevant methods are studied in the study based on the characteristics of the telecommunications industry. Further, a three data layer audit method, consisted of audit mode data file level, record level and index level, is constructed during Extraction Transformation Loading (ETL) process. It can effectively improve the data quality of data warehouse.
  Wei Wang , Feng Zeng , Xintao Duan and Hongjun Li
  A common technique of photographic manipulation is the digital splicing combining two or more images into a single composite. However, many of the existing detection methods are limited to handle merely one type of splicing image. In this study, a novel method is proposed to detect the splicing by using Single Channel Blind Signal Separation (SCBSS). The mixing matrix can be constructed through the splicing definition in order to build a new SCBSS model. A new measure is developed to estimate the special binary matrix, which recover all source images. These images allow identifying the spliced region and the background region. The experiment results are promising and confirm the robustness of the proposed approach.
  Wei Wang , Wei Wei , Qinghua Zheng , Jie Hu , Yingying Chen and Bin Zhou
  Based on the analysis of characteristics of web page data set and difficulties of document logical structure extraction task, the method of document logical structure extraction of web page is proposed, moreover, four key technologies are proposed in order to extract document logical structure. Finally, the study download and process a number of web pages from Baidu baike and general sites related to two courses of computer science i.e., operating system and computer network. Evaluation on web pages of Baidu baike shows that the average error rate is 12.8 and 6.6% on operating system and computer network courses respectively and the average rate of general web pages on operating system and computer network is 30 and 22.6%, respectively. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the method proposed in this study.
  Wei Wang , Funing Chen , Zhihao Wang and Chang Liu
  The employment is a more complex economic and social phenomenon. It can be the basic premise of government austerity to make a real and objective analysis and judgment on the employment states and to resolve to expand employment channels and measures. The adjustment and upgrading of industrial structure was the key factors which directly impact on the employment states in Harbin. Therefore, the study applied the statistical method, factor analysis, to analyze and evaluate the employment states of three major industries deeply and summed up the personality characteristics and the causes of employment states, based on the sixth census data of bureau statistics in Harbin in 2010. The results could provide the scientific basis to develop and implement employment policies for government decision.
  Wei Wang , Xin-Han Huang and Min Wang
  Out-of-sequence-measurements problem tend to arise in multi-sensors target tracking, due to communication delays and varying signal pre-processing time. A number of studies have addressed the processing of out-of-sequence-measurements when the target dynamics and measurement models are linear or nonlinear. To solve this problem more effectively, a novel out of sequence measurement processing algorithm is developed and presented in this study. It based on sequential Bayesian formula and Gaussian particle filter. In essence, this algorithm uses importance sampling to update the posterior means and their covariances and also approximates the posterior distributes by single Gaussians. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that it has low complexity, its performance is consistent with standard sequential processing algorithm and it is asymptotically optimal as numbers of particles tends to infinity.
  Wei Wang , Xiao-Dong Zhan , Tong Zhou , Xiao-Jing Wang , Hua-Long Qiang and Zhong-Qiang Cheng
  Background and Objective: The sinonasal culture studies indicate acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABR), an inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal cavity, characteristic after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Antimicrobials have been widely used to treat ABR and subside the resultant inflammation. The present investigation compares responses of ciprofloxacin applied topically and by gavage feeding against ABR in mouse model of ABR. Methodology: Intranasal inoculation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was carried out in C57BL/6 mice for inducing ABR infection. One day after induction, ciprofloxacin administration was done topically and by gavage route in separate animal groups. Animal groups were sacrificed during the course of 5 days after inoculation and treatment. Inflammatory mediators and immunological cells (such as GR1, CD4, CD8 and CD11b cells) were quantified in sinus areas using flow cytometry. Bacterial population was determined by culturing nasal lavage from animals after specified periods. Two-tailed parametric t-test was used for calculation of significant values. Results: Ciprofloxacin gavage fed rats showed rapid depletion of microorganisms and of inflammation in contrast to topically treated animals. The reduction in the therapeutic effectiveness of topically applied ciprofloxacin could be due to sub-potent availability, quick nasal depletion or failure of drug suspension to approach the infected site. Conclusion: The study concluded that gavage treatment reduced the bacterial count more efficiently against topical treatment of ciprofloxacin in ABR mice animal models.
  Hong Li , Jian-guo Wu , Hong-wei Zhang , Wei Wang , Yuan-xing Zhang and Jian-ning Zhang
  Background and Objective: Glioma is the most commonly detected primary brain tumor found in adults and has very high rate of morbidity and mortality. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gedunin on viability, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma multiforme, U-251 MG cell line. Materials and Methods: Invasion assay was performed using 24-well cell culture invasion chamber (Corning Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) coated with 8.0 μm Matrigel™ (Becton Dickinson, Bedford, MA, USA). For real-time polymerase chain reaction U-251 MG cells were distributed on to the six-well tissue culture plates and treated with gedunin for 24 h. Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit was used for the isolation of total RNA from the cells. Results: The results revealed that exposure of U-251 MG cells to gedunin reduced the viability of U-251 MG cells to 28% compared to 98% in control group. Analysis of cell migration and invasion showed a significant inhibition by gedunin at a concentration of 20 μM after 24 h. Gedunin treatment suppressed the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), metalloproteinases (MMP)-7, MMP-9 and uPA which play a vital role in inducing migration of carcinoma cells. The inhibition was significant (p<0.005) at all the tested concentrations except 5 μM after 24 h in U-251 MG cells. In addition the real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked reduction in the expression of MMP-9, FAK and Rho kinases-ROCK-1 (ROCK-1) mRNA by gedunin treatment. Conclusion: Thus, gedunin treatment caused inhibition of proliferation, migration and invasion in U-251 MG cells through inhibition of MMP-9, FAK and ROCK-1. Therefore, gedunin is a potent agent for the treatment of tumor growth.
  Jia Yao , Ming Zhang , Yu-Mei Feng , Si-Yi Chen , Wei Wang , Jie Wang and Song-Jia Lai
  Interferon-tau (IFN-τ) secreted by blastular trophectoderm was thought to be the primary signal for pregnancy recognition during bovine early pregnancy period after pregnancy recognition, progesterone dominated pregnancy maintaining. Moreover, Matrix Metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was important for embryo implantation. The objectives of studies were evaluated whether IFN-τ and progesterone regulated MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expression in cultured bovine Endometrial Cells (bECs). In the studies, bECs were cultured in DMEM-Ham’s F12 medium with free-serum. These cultured cells were divided into 4 groups and cultured in four types culture medium: culture medium without IFN-τ and progesterone (Co group); culture medium including 100 ng mL-1 IFN-τ (IN group); culture medium including 200 nmol L-1 progesterone (Pr group); culture medium including 100 ng mL-1 IFN-τ and 200 nmol L-1 progesterone (I+P group). Cultured bECs were harvested and extracted total mRNA after being cultured for 1, 3, 6 and 12 h and then expression level of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were assessed with fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed that MMP-2 expression level in Pr, IN and I+P group were extremely significantly higher than in Co group (p<0.01). MMP-2 expression level in IN and I+P group was significantly higher than in Pr group (p<0.05). MMP-2 expression level was no statistical difference between IN group and I+P group (p>0.05); TIMP-2 expression level in Pr, IN and I+P group was extremely significantly lower than in Co group (p<0.01) and TIMP-2 expression level was no statistical difference among Pr, IN and I+P group (p>0.05). The conclusion indicated progesterone and IFN-τ induced MMP-2 expression in vitro cultured bECs whereas, progesterone and IFN-τ suppressed TIMP-2 expression in vitro cultured bECs.
  Ying-He Qin , Wei Wang , Jia Yao , Jian Wang , Xiao-Mao Guo and Song-Jia Lai
  Meat flavor, one of the most important characteristic of meat quality in farm animals is significantly determined by the Inosine Monophosphate Acid (IMP) content. However, the genetic regulation underlying IMP synthesis has largely remained unknown at the present. In this study, researchers cloned the AMPD1 gene in rabbit and investigated the mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle at 40, 70 and 90 days old, respectively using real-time PCR method. The association between mRNA expression and IMP content was subsequently studied among 48 individuals from two breeds of Tianfu black rabbit (n = 24) and Harbin albino rabbit (n = 24). Total 899 bp fragment containing entire coding region was obtained for rabbit AMPD1 gene. There is no significant difference of IMP content between the two breeds rabbits in the three studied ages (p>0.05). The slaughter age has significant effect on the IMP content with the highest value at 90 days old (3.41±0.29) and the lowest values at 40 days old (2.50±0.39). Researchers detected the negative correlation between IMP content and AMPD1 mRNA expression (r = -0.916, p<0.05). The AMPD1 gene have not significant effects on IMP contents. The results suggested the potential function of AMPD1 to determine the IMP content in rabbit which is significant to conduct the MAS for improving the meat quality.
  Wei Wang , Xiao-Mao Guo , Jian Wang and Song-Jia Lai
  Meat products normally contain low omega-3 fatty acids and high ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may contribute to the prevalence of many diseases. In order to obtained in such beef with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids will be more healthy to meet people’s diet, researchers generated the fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans c fat-1 gene encoding an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the gene is absent in mammals. In this study, researchers successful product the embryo of fat-1 transgenic simmental crossbred cattle using OSM. The results of Western Blotting and fluoroscopic examination have proved that the fat-1 gene has been into genome of clone embryo and translated into proteins which could be used to embryo transfer.
  Jianglong Yuan , Yong Jin , Bing Zhu , Wei Wang , Yu Ren , Haiqing Wu , Fei Hao , Mingtu Nuo , Muzi Jin , Zhigang Wang , Ming Chang , Dongjun Liu and Xudong Guo
  The efficiency of donor cell types in cashmere goat Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) is undefined. In this study, SCNT was performed using Caprine fetal Fibroblast Cells (CFCs), Caprine Ear Fibroblast Cells (CEFCs) and Transgenic Caprine Fetal Fibroblast Cells (TCFCs) as donor cells to compare the influences of cell type, transgene and sex of nuclear donor fibroblast cells on the SCNT efficiency including fusion and cleavage rates of reconstructed embryos and the birth, postnatal survival and mortality rates of cloned kids. A total of 4,943 reconstructed embryos were obtained. Among them, 3,949 embryos were fused and 3,737 embryos were cultured in vitro leading to a total of 3,094 cleavage embryos. Furthermore, embryo transplantation analysis was conducted on 1,873 cloned embryos with relatively normal morphology. A total of 368 recipient goats were transplanted and 48 goats were born of which 35 goats survived.
  Xiong Xiao , Xiao-Yan Qiu , Wei Wang , Yu-Jin Deng and Yue-Min Li
  The aim of this study was to establish a feeder layer-free and serum-free isolation and culture system for Kunming mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs). Mouse ESCs were isolated and cultured in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) feeder layer and Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) culture system or feeder layer-free and serum-free culture system respectively and their primary colonies formation rates, maximum passage number and morphology and growth characters were compared. The undifferentiated status were identified by expression of Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP), Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) and Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen 1 (SSEA-1). The results indicated that there were no significant difference in the primary colonies formation rates (p<0.05) and no obvious difference in maximum passage number of ESCs between basal ESCs medium with MEFs feeder layer and FBS treated groups and modified ESCs medium without MEFs feeder layer and serum treated groups, respectively. There were some differences in morphology and growth characters of ESCs between those two kinds of culture systems. ESCs cultured in feeder layer-free and serum-free culture system were positive for AKP activity and the immunocytochemical staining studies revealed positive reaction to Anti-Oct-4 monoclonal antibody and Anti-SSEA-1 monoclonal antibody, respectively. Therefore, mouse ESCs isolated in this study can grow in feeder layer-free and serum-free culture system and maintain their self-renewal and undifferentiated state.
  Xinting Zheng , Kemei Peng , Juan Tang , Wei Wang , Ke Xiao , Daiyun Zhu , Shun Lu , Keli Yang , Jing Wang , Pengpeng Sun and Min Chen
  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental drinking boron on morphology of ostrich chicks’ cerebrum. Twenty four hatched ostrich chicks were divided into six group (I-VI) and supplemented by the water with 0, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg L-1 boron, respectively for 45 days. Cerebrums were obtained and weighed after dissection then measured the transverse diameter, longitudinal diameter and height of cerebral hemisphere immediately. Paraffin embedded sections of cerebral tissues (4 μm thick) were stained with HE, Nissl’s and argentaffin and then micro photographed. It showed significant increase (p<0.05 or p<0.01) in each anatomy index of group IV in comparison with the other groups while group VI showed significant decrease. Histology study showed that neurons of the cerebrum of group I and II were alike, nerve fibers passed horizontally within the cortex. Neurons of group III were varied in size and shape and with abundance of nerve fibers passed horizontally within the cortex tighter. Whereas neurons of group IV had more types than the rest of groups and were well arranged from the edge to inside by size, the nerve fibers were rich and interweaved. In contrast, neurons of group V and VI were monomorphic with less neurite and nerve fibers were tenuous and sparse. Findings showed that 80-160 mg L-1 supplemental drinking boron promotes cerebrum development, neurons differentiation, neurite formation and nerve fibers elongation of the cerebrum of 0-45 days old ostrich chicks.
  Wei Wang , Yonggang Ma , Lifei Sun and Yangchun Tong
  In this study, the design of multifunctional intelligent car is presented. The STC89C52 is chosen as the core controller and the high sensitivity infrared sensors are used to achieve the function of automatic tracing and obstacle avoidance. The PWM wave produced by MCU is used to control the vehicle speed. The car can realize automatic light-seeking and fire-detection function by the design of photoresistance and flame inductiveprobe circuit, which uses buzzer and LED to achieve sound and light alarm. The experiments show the validity and efficiency of the proposed scheme. The technology can be applied in many fields such as service robot, intelligent toy, unmanned driving vehicles, light sources and flame detection.
  Minghai Wang , Xiaopeng Li and Wei Wang
  PVD coatings (TiAlN) carbide cutting tools of titanium alloy (Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr) turning test. Observation tool wear morphology using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysisinstrument (EDS) analysis tool wear on the surface of the element distribution. analysis tool wear mechanism results show that: with PVD coating (TiAlN) carbide tool material turning titanium alloy Ti-6.5Al-1Mo-1V-2Zr, tool wear early main rake face crater wear and uniform flank wear, with the further wear of the tool, front and rear flank wear is connected to the formation of new irregular cutting edge, the front and rear of the coated cemented carbide cutting tool the flank coating flaking tool main wear mechanism is adhesive wear, oxidation and wear, diffusion wear which the oxidation wear occurs mainly in the edge region of the front and rear flank of the tool and since the temperature of the rake face of the cutting tool in the cutting process than after the flank cutting temperature adhesive wear, oxidation wear, diffusion wear phenomenon is more serious rake.
  Wei Wang , Weishuang Qu , Zhihao Wang and Chang Liu
  Since the reform and opening up in China, the transfer of rural surplus labor force has made great achievements but there were some difficulties that can not be ignored. From an objective perspective, at present there were a large number of rural surplus labor forces in China rural areas, who are not high quality, strong farmer’s mentality and monotonic diversion channels, resulting in so slow transfer process. In the study, it was firstly assumed that if the marginal revenue is different in various industries or trades, farmers seeking profit maximization will reach the better situation. The second, the surplus rate of agricultural labor force can be calculated by SPSS statistical software. The average wage of urban employment workers was regarded as the marginal revenue of non-agricultural labor force. The average wage of agriculture (forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries) workers was regarded as the marginal revenue of agricultural labor force in rural areas. The exponential function was used to fit the time series of the average wage. Finally, the agricultural surplus labor force was estimated and forecasted in China from 2012 to 2040.
  Todd C. Hoopman , Wei Wang , Chad A. Brautigam , Jennifer L. Sedillo , Thomas J . Reilly and Eric J. Hansen
  Moraxella catarrhalis O35E was shown to synthesize a 105-kDa protein that has similarity to both acid phosphatases and autotransporters. The N-terminal portion of the M. catarrhalis acid phosphatase A (MapA) was most similar (the BLAST probability score was 10–10) to bacterial class A nonspecific acid phosphatases. The central region of the MapA protein had similarity to passenger domains of other autotransporter proteins, whereas the C-terminal portion of MapA resembled the translocation domain of conventional autotransporters. Cloning and expression of the M. catarrhalis mapA gene in Escherichia coli confirmed the presence of acid phosphatase activity in the MapA protein. The MapA protein was shown to be localized to the outer membrane of M. catarrhalis and was not detected either in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction from disrupted M. catarrhalis cells or in the spent culture supernatant fluid from M. catarrhalis. Use of the predicted MapA translocation domain in a fusion construct with the passenger domain from another predicted M. catarrhalis autotransporter confirmed the translocation ability of this MapA domain. Inactivation of the mapA gene in M. catarrhalis strain O35E reduced the acid phosphatase activity expressed by this organism, and this mutation could be complemented in trans with the wild-type mapA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mapA gene from six M. catarrhalis strains showed that this protein was highly conserved among strains of this pathogen. Site-directed mutagenesis of a critical histidine residue (H233A) in the predicted active site of the acid phosphatase domain in MapA eliminated acid phosphatase activity in the recombinant MapA protein. This is the first description of an autotransporter protein that expresses acid phosphatase activity.
  Wei Wang , Anthony R. Richardson , Willm Martens-Habbena , David A. Stahl , Ferric C. Fang and Eric J. Hansen
  Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis in a biofilm resulted in marked upregulation of two open reading frames (ORFs), aniA and norB, predicted to encode a nitrite reductase and a nitric oxide reductase, respectively (W. Wang, L. Reitzer, D. A. Rasko, M. M. Pearson, R. J. Blick, C. Laurence, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 75:4959-4971, 2007). An ORF designated nsrR, which was located between aniA and norB, was shown to encode a predicted transcriptional regulator. Inactivation of nsrR resulted in increased expression of aniA and norB in three different M. catarrhalis strains, as measured by both DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Provision of a wild-type nsrR gene in trans in an nsrR mutant resulted in decreased expression of the AniA protein. DNA microarray analysis revealed that two other ORFs (MC ORF 683 and MC ORF 1550) were also consistently upregulated in an nsrR mutant. Consumption of both nitrite and nitric oxide occurred more rapidly with cells of an nsrR mutant than with wild-type cells. However, growth of nsrR mutants was completely inhibited by a low level of sodium nitrite. This inhibition of growth by nitrite was significantly reversed by introduction of an aniA mutation into the nsrR mutant and was completely reversed by the presence of a wild-type nsrR gene in trans. NsrR regulation of the expression of aniA was sensitive to nitrite, whereas NsrR regulation of norB was sensitive to nitric oxide.
  Wei Wang , Dongming Peng , Honggang Wang and Hamid Sharif
  Due to resource constraints, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In this paper, we propose a novel robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Image Component Transmission (ICT) in WSN by providing various levels of reliability during image transmissions. Different components in the embedded wavelet image bit stream are considered and essential components of the compressed image such as the information for the positions of significant wavelet coefficients are transmitted with higher quality assurance. Relatively less important components such as the information for the values of pixels are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show the proposed scheme achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN, with image transmission quality enhanced considerably by up to 6dB in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).
  Honggang Wang , Dongming Peng , Wei Wang and Hamid Sharif
  It is important to increase the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) lifetime, due to its limited energy resource, while meeting the constraints of applications. Recent Advances for In-Network Processing (INP) motivate many WSN applications which are based on multi rate and distributed signal processing, and therefore require the support of rate-based routing as well as MAC and link layer designs to maximize the WSN lifetime. We propose a new scheme called "Rate Distribution (RateD)", in which the application rate constraints are distributed in the WSN based on an optimized routing scheme. An optimal RateD was achieved by forming optimal data flows under rate constraints, which was an NP-complete problem. To reduce the complexity, a near optimization solution formed and analyzed, and a practical rate-based routing selection based on rate assignment also proposed to achieve effective rate distributions. The simulation shows that this scheme significantly extends the WSN lifetime for INP applications.
  Wei Wang , Songtao Wang , Ke Yang and Yiyin Shan
  Temperature dependence of tensile behavior of a high nitrogen Fe–Cr–Mn–Mo stainless steel with nitrogen content of 0.66% was investigated. It was found that strength of the steel increased with decrease of temperature, and the deformation microstructure of the steel which determines the strain-hardening behavior was strongly dependent on temperature. It was analyzed that stacking fault energy (SFE) of the steel decreased with decrease of temperature, which promoted the twinning and planar slipping in the steel, and thus made brittle fracture to occur at cryogenic temperature.
  Weipeng Mu , Wei Wang and John C. Schimenti
  Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein (PTIP, or PAXIP1) is required for mouse development and has been implicated in DNA damage responses and histone modification. However, the physiological roles of PTIP during embryogenesis remain unclear due to early embryonic lethality of null mutants. We describe two N-ethyl N-nitrosourea-induced hypomorphic missense alleles of Ptip, each of which alters one of the six encoded BRCT domains. Phenotypic characterization of these mutants revealed important functions of PTIP in vasculogenesis and chorioplacental development that appear unrelated to activities in DNA repair or global histone modification. The results of gene expression profiling and in vitro angiogenesis assays indicated that PTIP modulates a transcriptional program, centered around Vegfa, that drives the migration of endothelial cells to properly form the embryonic vasculature. These and other data suggest that PTIP has multiple functions, one of which is to promote the formation of transcriptional complexes that provide specificity of developmental gene expression.
  Yu-Jun WANG , Cheng-Bao LI , Wei WANG , Dong-Mei ZHOU and Ren-Kou XU
  Gibbs free binding energy and adsorption energy between cations and charged soil particles were used to evaluate the interactions between ions and soil particles. The distribution of Gibbs free adsorption energies could not be determined experimentally before the development of Wien effect measurements in dilute soil suspensions. In the current study, energy relationships between heavy metal ions and particles of Hapli-Udic Argosol (Alfisol) and Ferri-Udic Argosol were inferred from Wien effect measurements in dilute suspensions of homoionic soil particles (< 2μm) of the two soils, which were saturated with ions of five heavy metals, in deionized water. The mean Gibbs free binding energies of the heavy metal ions with Hapli-Udic Argosol and Ferri-Udic Argosol particles diminished in the order of Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cr3+, where the range of binding energies for Hapli-Udic Argosol (7.25-9.32 kJ mol−1) was similar to that for Ferri-Udic Argosol (7.43-9.35 kJ mol−1). The electrical field-dependent mean Gibbs free adsorption energies of these heavy metal ions for Hapli-Udic Argosol and for Ferri-Udic Argosol descended in the order: Cu 2+≥Cd 2+≥Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cr3+, and Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cr3+, respectively. The mean Gibbs free adsorption energies of Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cr3+ at a field strength of 200 kV cm−1, for example, were in the range of 0.8-3.2 kJ mol−1 for the two soils.
  Wei WANG , Jiang FENG and T. OIKAWA
  Soil CO2 efflux, root mass, and root production were investigated in a humid temperate grassland of Japan over a growing season (Apr. to Sep.) of 2005 to reveal seasonal changes of soil CO2 efflux, to separate the respective contributions of root and microbial respiration to the total soil CO2 efflux, and to determine the environmental factors that control soil respiration. Minimal microbial respiration rate was estimated based on the linear regression equations between soil CO2 efflux and root mass at different experimental sites. Soil CO2 efflux, ranging from 4.99 to 16.29 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1, depended on the seasonal changes in soil temperature. The root mass at 0–10 cm soil depth was 0.82 and 1.27 kg m−2 in Apr. and Sep., respectively. The root mass at 0–10 cm soil depth comprised 60% of the total root mass at 0–50 cm soil depth. The root productivity at 0–30 cm depth varied from 8 to 180 g m−2 month−1. Microbial and root respiration rates ranged from 1.35 to 5.51 and 2.72 to 12.06 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to the total soil CO2 efflux averaged 53%, ranging from 33% to 72%. The microbial respiration rate was exponentially related to soil temperature at 10 cm depth (R2 = 0.9400, P = 0.002, n = 6), and the root respiration rate was linearly related to the root production at 0–30 cm depth (R2 = 0.6561, P = 0.042, n = 6).
  Xiao-Yang Yang , Maromu Yamada , Jin-Ming Lin , Wei Wang , Takayuki Kameda , Akira Toriba and Kazuichi Hayakawa
  Airborne particulate matter was collected at Wajima, the Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa, Japan by a high-volume air sampler with a quartz fiber filter every week from September 17, 2004 to September 16, 2005. The filter was newly changed every week. There are no major emission sources of atmospheric pollutants near the sampling site. Water-soluble fluoride anion extracted from the filters was analyzed by ion chromatography. The concentration of non-sea-salt fluoride was higher during the heating period of China (from October 15, 2004 to April 15, 2005), significantly higher during the period of Asian Dust (from the mid of April to the beginning of May in 2005), than that in the other seasons. This result suggests that the main contributor of fluoride in the period of Asian Dust was high-fluoride-concentrated soil from the arid area of China. A noticeable positive correlation (r = 0.54, n = 28, p < 0.01) between the level of non-sea-salt fluoride and PAHs was observed, when only the data obtained during the period of Asian Dust was excluded. In view of the fact that PAHs emitted from Northeast China were long-range transported to Japan during the heating period of China, fluoride emitted from coal combustion long-range transported from the Asian continent to Japan during the same period appears to be another main source of fluoride.
  Yu-Jun Wang , Cheng-Bao Lia , Wei Wang , Dong-Mei Zhou , Ren-Kou Xu and Shmulik P. Friedman
  Gibbs mean free adsorption energies between cations and charged soil particles are a measure of physicochemical interactions between ions and soil particles. The distribution of Gibbs free adsorption energies could not be determined experimentally before the development of Wien effect measurements in dilute soil suspensions. In the present study, energy relationships between heavy metal ions and particles of yellow-brown and black soils (an Alfisol and a Mollisol) were inferred from Wien effect measurements in dilute suspensions, in deionized water, of homoionic soil particles (<2 µm) of the two soils saturated with ions of five heavy metals. The results show that the mean Gibbs free binding energies of the heavy metal ions with yellow-brown and black soil particles diminish in the order Pb2+ > Zn2+ >= Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Cr3+, where the range of binding energies for yellow-brown soil (5.39–8.54 kJ mol–1) is less than that for black soil (8.39–9.88 kJ mol–1). The electrical field-dependent mean Gibbs free adsorption energies of these heavy metal ions for yellow-brown and black soils descend in the order Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cr3+ and Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Cr3+, respectively. The mean Gibbs free adsorption energies of Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cr3+ at a field strength of 150 kV cm–1, for example, are in the range of 0.5 to 2.1 kJ mol–1 for the two soils.
  Camila O. dos Santos , Louis C. Dore , Eric Valentine , Suresh G. Shelat , Ross C. Hardison , Manik Ghosh , Wei Wang , Richard S. Eisenstein , Fernando F. Costa and Mitchell J. Weiss
  Hemoglobin production during erythropoiesis is mechanistically coupled to the acquisition and metabolism of iron. We discovered that iron regulates the expression of α-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP), a molecular chaperone that binds and stabilizes free α-globin during hemoglobin synthesis. In primates, the 3`-untranslated region (UTR) of AHSP mRNA contains a nucleotide sequence resembling iron responsive elements (IREs), stem-loop structures that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding iron regulatory proteins (IRPs). The AHSP IRE-like stem-loop deviates from classical consensus sequences and binds IRPs poorly in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, in cytoplasmic extracts, AHSP mRNA co-immunoprecipitates with IRPs in a fashion that is dependent on the stem-loop structure and inhibited by iron. Moreover, this interaction enhances AHSP mRNA stability in erythroid and heterologous cells. Our findings demonstrate that IRPs can regulate mRNA expression through non-canonical IREs and extend the repertoire of known iron-regulated genes. In addition, we illustrate a new mechanism through which hemoglobin may be modulated according to iron status.
  Fengsong Wang , Peng Xia , Fang Wu , Dongmei Wang , Wei Wang , Tarsha Ward , Ya Liu , Felix Aikhionbare , Zhen Guo , Michael Powell , Bingya Liu , Feng Bi , Andrew Shaw , Zhenggang Zhu , Adel Elmoselhi , Daiming Fan , Timothy L. Cover , Xia Ding and Xuebiao Yao
  Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met469-Thr470, which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria.
  Fan Zhang , Wei Wang , Yoshiaki Tsuji , Suzy V. Torti and Frank M. Torti
  Iron plays an essential role in cell proliferation and is a required cofactor for a number of critical cellular enzymes. In this report we investigate changes in proteins of iron metabolism during p53-mediated replicative arrest. Following the induction of p53 in H1299 lung cancer cells containing a doxycycline-inducible p53, an increase in both H and L subunits of ferritin protein was observed. To determine the mechanism of this effect, we investigated the ability of p53 to regulate ferritin. Real time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated no difference in levels of ferritin H mRNA in the presence and absence of p53. Because these results suggested that transcriptional mechanisms were not responsible for the p53-dependent increase in ferritin, we tested whether a post-transcriptional mechanism was involved. RNA bandshift assays revealed that induction of p53 decreased iron regulatory protein binding. Consistent with this observation, Western blot analysis revealed a decline in transferrin receptor 1 protein levels following induction of p53. Collectively, these results suggest that p53 may induce cell cycle arrest not only by well described mechanisms involving the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors but also by the recruitment of pathways that reduce the availability of intracellular iron.
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