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Articles by Wang
Total Records ( 3 ) for Wang
  Ke Li , Hua Zhao , Ji-Chang Zhou , Jia-Yong Tang , Xin-Gen Lei , Kang- Ning and Wang
  This study was to develop an obese porcine model induced by a high-fat diet and determine effects of obesity on gene expression in subcutaneous fat tissue in this model. A total of 20 crossbred, castrated boars (20 kg body weight) were fed a corn-soy basal diet (Se adequate, total fat <0.82%) or the diet added with lard at 3% (20-50 kg), 5% (50-80 kg) or 7% (>80 kg) for 180 days. Results showed that pigs fed the high fat diet showed greater (p<0.05) body weight (146 vs. 121 kg), back fat thickness (3.5 vs. 2.3 cm) and abdominal fat content (3.5 vs. 1.9 kg), along with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, compared with the control pigs. About 387 genes were found to be significantly up-regulated and 465 genes down-regulated (fold change ≥2.0) in the high-fat diet group compared to the control group. To further characterize the response of gene type to high-fat diet in subcutaneous fat tissue, 852 genes significantly altered in response to high-fat diet were classified into Gene Ontology (GO) slim terms. Genes involved in metabolic process, immune response, translation and cell cycle were significantly up-regulated (p<0.05). Genes involved in regulation of transcription, RNA splicing and transcription were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05). The results indicated that the differentially expressed genes including 26 up-regulated and five down-regulated genes were associated with significant pathways involved in organization of metabolism and primary immunodeficiency (NSFC projects 30871844, 30700585).
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang , H. Rong , E.A. Mukisira and S.A. Abdulrazak
  Kenyan dairy industry is a smallholder activity in terms of both milk production and volume of sales. The challenge, however, is how to sustain it amid myriad of constraints. The current study was carried out in Bahati division of Nakuru District over a period of 3 years. The objective was to quantify performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Out of the 120 smallholder households interviewed during the preceding feed survey, 60 of them were selected to participate in the trial. They were all trained on data collection. Dam weights and milk yields were monitored on monthly and daily basis respectively over 2 to 3 consecutive lactations. The collected data was stratified according to zero, semi-zero and free grazing systems and stored in MS Excel. SAS (ANOVA and proc. GLM) models were used to compare the differences between systems. Scatter plots were developed using Lotus. The study revealed that, of the many constraints facing smallholders, lack of sufficient land for forage production, is the most critical. Majority of farmers owned between 0.5 to 5 acres out of which over 80% was committed to food crop production. Established acreage of Napier grass, which is the most popular fodder crop among smallholder resource-poor farm was low (ranged: 0.125 to 0.5 acres). This was further complicated by farmers` inability to conserve feeds (silage or hay). Consequently dairy cows` performance was observed to be low across the 3 production systems. Body weights and milk yields showed a wide variation both within and between systems. Dairy cows in zero grazing systems recorded higher body weights (480±75; range: 345-601 kg) compared to those in free (338±39; range: 275-410) and semi-zero (397±59; range: 280-490 kg) grazing systems respectively (P< 0.0001; r2 = 59%). A similar trend was observed with milk yield (free: 5-12; semi-zero: 6-16 and zero grazing system: 8-24 kg/cow/d) (P< 0.0001). Cases of dairy stock morbidity and mortality due to diseases (tickborne, worms) exacerbated by malnutrition were also recorded. It was therefore concluded that, since little can be done on land scarcity, building farmers capacity on feed production, conservation and utilization would be the way forward. Development of suitable fodder crops, cost effective methods of feed production and ration formulation is therefore critical.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang , H. Rong , S.A. Abdulrazak and E.A. Mukisira
  Inadequate feeding and high disease prevalence are considered as the major setback to dairy production on smallholder farms in Kenya. Under such circumstances, heavy losses of young calves occur. This is the situation presently on these farms. The current study was conducted in Bahati division of Nakuru district over a period of 3 years. Out of 120 smallholder farmers randomly visited and interviewed, 60 of them were selected to participate in the trial, based on whether they have dairy cattle and willing to collaborate. The selected farmers were trained on data recording and provided with a heart-girth measuring tape, a spring balance (25 kg), a 10-litre plastic bucket (for feed weighing), a 1-litre graduated jug (for measuring milk) and a record book. They were then divided into two groups (Control and test) of 30 each. Control group was asked to continue with their ordinary calf management, where supplementation was not offered. Test farmers were asked to strictly follow the research calf-feeding schedule where Napier grass cv Bana was fed as a basal diet and supplemented with protein rich forages (Lucernne; Sweet potato vines cv Munsinya; Desmodium cv Green leaf and fodder shrubs (Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban). Parameters of study were growth rate, mortality, morbidity and dynamics. The collected data was stored in MS-excel and later subjected to appropriate statistical models (SAS) to established the calf performance difference between the 2 farm groups and livestock production systems. The results showed that calves in test farms performed better (370 g/d) compared to those in control farms (307 g/d)(P< 0.01). The study further revealed that calves supplemented with an assortment of protein rich forages showed a rapid body weight gain (375 and 417 g/d) compared to those offered SPV as a sole protein supplement (345 g/d) (P< 0.05). It was further observed that the overall female calf mortality in zero grazing test farms was low (6%) compared to semi-zero and free grazing test farms (15 and 20%, respectively)(P< 0.05). In the same farms mortality of male and female calves was different (P< 0.05). Mortality for male calves was observed to be higher (Test-zero: Male – 13%; Female – 6%; Control-zero: Male – 11% and Female 9%). The same trend was observed across the test and control farms in semi-zero and free grazing systems. On calf dynamics, off-take for male (33 – 78%) calves was observed to be much higher that for female calves (6 – 33%)(P< 0.001). It was therefore concluded that protein supplementation, using farm grown forages improves performance of dairy calves on smallholder farms. The authors recommend that resource-poor farmers emphasize on cultivation of forage legumes so as to have sufficient protein rich diets for young dairy calves.
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