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Articles by Walid A. Gafour
Total Records ( 3 ) for Walid A. Gafour
  Tarek A. Morsy , Ashraf G. Mohamed , Sobhy M. Kholif and Walid A. Gafour
  The main objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional properties of the processed cheese produced using milk from goats fed with flax oil or flax seeds. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats, in early lactation, were divided into three groups using complete randomized design for 90-days period. The treatments were (1) Control ration consisted of concentrate feed mixture: Bersem clover (1:1 dry matter bases), (2) Control +50 g head day-1 Flax Seeds (FS) and (3) Control +20 mL head day-1 Flax Oil (FO). Milk was pooled from each treatment and then used independently for the manufacturing of processed cheese. The total unsaturated fatty acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) in processed cheese were increased (p<0.05) with experimental additives. However, poly unsaturated fatty acids contents were insignificant increased (p>0.05). On the other hand, the total saturated fatty acids were decreased (p>0.05). The results also indicated that the fatty acids profile in processed cheese of FO group was better than FS group. Processed cheese flavors, color and physical properties such as melting index, oil separation and penterometer reading were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. It is concluded that the addition of flax seed or flax oil to lactating goats ration significantly modified the nutritive value of the processed cheese which may provide benefits to the consumers.
  A.G. Mohamed , Hayam M. Abbas , Jihan M. Kassem , Walid A. Gafour and A.G. Attalah
  A new approach to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms or protect food from oxidation is using of essential oils or plant extracts. Among the antimicrobial agents, Commiphora myrrha is considered as natural and safe materials. The antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha-essential oil against different species of pathogenic gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria were investigated. Data revealed that all tested microorganisms were susceptible to the action of Commiphora myrrha. Their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranged from 2-5 μL mL–1 for all microorganisms. Processed Cheese Spreads (PCSs) samples were prepared by using five ratios of Commiphora myrrha-Essential Oil (EO) to evaluate their properties and their acceptability. Their properties were estimated through one year of storage at 5±2°C. Obtained results showed that using 2% (w/w) Commiphora myrrha-EO for preparing PCS gave satisfactorily sensory properties. The appearance was well shiny; gumminess and oil separation were absent. The penetration of satisfied treatment of myrrh (2%) was (33.5, 32.0, 31.2, 30.00 and 29.20 mm) compared to control samples (33.0, 30.5, 26.5, 25.1 and 24.5 mm) when fresh and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. On the other hand, meltability took the same trend; the treated-samples gained 85.4, 81.6, 80.0, 79.1 and 78.2 mm comparing with control samples 81.6, 80.5, 78.7, 77.1 and 76.6 mm, respectively. Therefore, it could be concluded that using of 2% w/w Commiphora myrrha-essential oil produced acceptable and satisfied processed cheese spreads and it could be used as a natural preservation in dairy products.
  A.G. Mohamed , Samah M. Shalaby and Walid A. Gafour
  Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the great nutritious origin vegetables. It is the richest source of β-carotene, precursor of vitamin A and a lot of nutrients. So, the main aims of preparing carrot based processed cheese analogue, were to enhance its nutritive value and presented new cheese for children. Carrot analogue processed cheeses (CPCSs) were made with various ratios of carrot paste (5, 10 and 15%) which sweetened with 15% sugar in all treatments. The base blends were standardized to contain 36% F/DM (fat in dry matter) and 60% moisture in the resultant control spreads. Various chemicals parameter such as total solids, ash, salt and carbohydrate were determined. Some important nutrients which the carrot presented as vitamin A, carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also measured, in addition to sensory evaluation. The CPCAs samples displayed that, insignificant higher in total solids, significant reductions in the average values of F/DM, protein and salt in water phase and insignificant for ash content; these reductions commensurate with increasing the proportion of the carrot paste addition. Moreover, enhanced cheese with carrot paste were higher than control in the each nutritional components, vitamin A, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity plus lower sodium/potassium ratio. In addition, sensory evaluation showed that all samples were accepted and that the use of carrot paste as optional ingredient in processed cheese analogue would be a great way to introduce of a healthy cheese with orange color, which could be introduced to children instead of other sweetened products.
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