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Articles by Wafa`a A. Al-Taisan
Total Records ( 3 ) for Wafa`a A. Al-Taisan
  Wafa`a A. Al-Taisan
  Problem statement: Water stress due to drought and salinity is probably the most significant abiotic factor limiting plant and also crop growth and development. Salinity and drought stresses are physiologically related, because both induce osmotic stress and most of the metabolic responses of the affected plants are similar to some extent. Water deficit affects the germination of seed and the growth of seedlings negatively. Temperature is an exceedingly important factor in seed germination. It directly affects whether a plant can sprout and, if so, how long it will take to emerge from the ground. Approach: The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of four alternating temperature regime, drought and salt stress on germination characteristics of Pennisetum divisum. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperatures (10/20, 15/25, 20/35 and 25/40°C at 12 h light). Seeds were also germinated with the iso-osmotic concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) or in polyethylene glycol PEG8000 (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa) for 14 days. Concentrations were applied to determine their effects on seed germination and seedling growth under laboratory conditions. The effects of different osmotic concentrations of NaCl and PEG were compared to distilled water (control). Results: Optimum germination was attained at 15/25°C which corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. The highest values of germination parameters were obtained with no osmotic potential (0 MPa) under 15/25°C. The final germination percentage and rate of germination in the Pennisetum divisum treated seeds were decreased with the increase of the osmotic potential. At treatment by PEG, the germination was severely decreased at -0.6 MPa. While, no germination occurred at- 0.8 MPa by NaCl. The results of the effects of the different osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG on the Radicle Length (RL) and the Hypocotyl Length (HL) mm of the tested P. divisum seeds were retarded when compared to the control. Conclusion: Results indicated germination sensitive to both the stresses. However, seedling growth was more sensitive to NaCl than was germination. However, seedling growth was more sensitive to NaCl than was germination responses to water stress induced by PEG and NaCl. Results also indicated that seed germination of P. divisum is less sensitive to osmotic potential indicating that the seeds of the species are efficient in osmotically adjusting to soluble salts. This suggests the possibility of revegtating moderately salt affected soils.
  Wafa`a A. Al-Taisan
  Problem Statement: Many soils of different areas of the world are subjected to heavy metal pollution due to human activities especially the industry. These metals are hazardous to human health and could affect ecosystems. Toxic metal pollution in water and soil is a major environmental problem and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solution, hence the studies of reducing such effects were launched. Phytoremediation, popularly known as green clean is an ecologically recommended strategy for the removal of toxic contaminations from the environment by using plants. Approach: The present study is an attempt to assess the suitability of using two species namely: Phragmites australis and Ttamarix aphylla as vegetation filterers in an industrial area to reduce the danger of contamination of heavy metals in the environment. The studied species viz. Phragmites australis and Tamarix aphylla were collected at four different locations (A, B, C and D) around a petrochemical and detergents factory in the industrial areas of Eastern Region, Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cu) were evaluated in different organs of Phragmites australis and Tamarix aphylla. Also, Soil samples were collected from each location for the chemical and mechanical analyses. Results: The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in Phragmites australis and Tamarix aphllya exhibited the same trend. In shoots of the studied species, Zn accumulated less heavy metals than the under ground parts, creeping rhizome and roots. The highest Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for Cd and Zn was noted in location B. In general, Zn was the most absorbed element followed by Fe, Mn while Ni as well as Pb and Cd were accumulated in lower quantities. In chemical and physical analyses of soil samples, location C showed the highest concentration of all of the investigated elements and it is the most alkaline with more clay and organic carbon. Conclusion/Recommendation: The present results demonstrated that both species are significant as vegetation filter and for cleaning the soils from contamination with heavy metals by phytoextraction. There is a great need to use the advantages of these plants in phytoremediation of environment. In the same time continuous harvesting of their shoots could be suitable way to recycling heavy metals.
  Wafa`a A. Al-Taisan , Ali H. Bahkali , Abdallah M. Elgorban and Mohamed A. El-Metwally
  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a destructive pathogen of several economically important crops, including soybean, pea, bean, canola and sunflower. This pathogen exhibits little host singularity and has a host range that includes more than 400 primarily dicotyledonous plant species. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 5 essential oils and 4 microelements against S. sclerotiorum were examined. Cinnamon, clove and mint oils completely inhibited the in vivo mycelial growth of the fungus at all concentrations. In addition, iron exhibited a marked antimicrobial effect against S. sclerotiorum. A soil application containing cinnamon oil significantly reduced the incidence of disease caused by S. sclerotiorum, producing 75% plant survival compared to the control. Calcium also significantly reduced the disease incidence that giving 80% living plants.
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