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Articles by W.R. Windham
Total Records ( 2 ) for W.R. Windham
  W.R. Windham , G.W. Heitschmidt , K.C. Lawrence , B. Park and D.P. Smith
  Detection of small masses (i.e. 10 mg and less) of fecal contaminants on broiler carcasses presents a significant challenge when using a multispectral imaging system. In contrast to the spectrally noncontiguous multispectral imagery, hyperspectral imagery can be seen as a single image with a contiguous spectrum of reflectance values associated with each image pixel. On a broiler carcass, the spectra may be recognizable as feces provided the contaminant fills or almost fills the pixel in the corresponding scene. Pixels partially filled (i.e. mixed pixels) by a contaminant result in a spectral signature that is a mixture of feces and carcass skin. Mixed pixels with small fecal masses on broiler carcasses can be problematic to accurately detect. The objective of this study was to determine whether hyperspectral imagery offered an improved detection rate of fecal contamination of known mass (2 to 10mg) relative to multispectral imagery; specifically, of fecal matter originating from the cecal. On each of three replicate sample days, twenty-four eviscerated, pre-chilled broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant. Cecal contents from the same flock were also collected and used to contaminate the carcasses. Carcass halves were first imaged uncontaminated and then imaged again after cecal contents (2, 5, or 10 mg) had been applied to the carcasses. Contaminants were predicted by decision tree (DT) and mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) classifiers, and results compared. The DT classifier, applied to the multispectral imagery, detected 63, 80, and 100% of the cecal mass applied at about 2, 5 and 10 mg, respectively. The low detection accuracy of the 2 and 5 mg masses was due to some contaminated mixed pixels that either went under-detected or in some cases undetected altogether (false negatives). The MTMF classifier, applied to the hyperspectral imagery, detected 88% of 2 mg and 100% of the 5 and 10 mg contaminants. At an applied mass of about 2, 5, and 10 mg, the MTMF classifier detected 55, 52, and 53%, respectively more cecal contaminated pixels than the DT classifier. The DT classifier incorrectly identified 104, 59, and 56 false positives on carcasses contaminated with about 2, 5, and 10 mg of ceca. On average, these false positives occurred on 36% of the carcasses. The MTMF classifier detected far fewer false positives on 15% of the carcasses.
  S.A. Hawkins , H. Zhuang , M. Sohn and W.R. Windham
  Visible-Near Infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIR) was used to characterize broiler breast filets with varied deboning times and identify how the side and position of the sampling affects the chemometric analysis and prediction capabilities. This study served to identify what differences, if any, exist when collecting spectra from the skin side and the medial side of the breast filets. In addition to the side of the filet, two different positions, anterior and posterior, on the filet were also probed spectroscopically. The comparison of the region and side of sampling of the breast filets has been previously unreported. The breast filets under investigation were subjected to different post-mortem deboning times. The right and left breast filets from each carcass were both used, but were deboned at different times. The results of this study show that the side of the filet has more impact on the spectra than does the position of the sampled area. The data analysis also shows that the spectra from the skin side are more useful for separation of samples by deboning time.
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