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Articles by W.O. Ayako
Total Records ( 2 ) for W.O. Ayako
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.R. Wang , W.O. Ayako and D.M. Kuria
  This study was conducted in Kenya over 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure or fertilizer application on quality of Vicia villosa Roth. After field preparation, 60 plots of 2x2 m2 size were then demarcated and divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each and independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were: T1-control (No fertilizer), T2 and T3 received beef cattle manure and fertilizer, respectively. All units were planted on the same day and harvested at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks, in a sequential manner, starting with unit 1-5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day and the entire freshly harvested materials (per plot) were weighed. Representative grab samples were collected, chopped to pieces of 2 cm length, mixed and 2 composite samples (500 g each) were then taken for dry matter determination and chemical analysis following standard procedures. Yield of nutrients was also determined. Collected data was stored in MS-Excel and analyzed using SAS. From the results it was observed that, NDF in T1, T2 and T3 increased by 19.7, 14.1 and 19.2% between 6 and 14 weeks, respectively. ANOVA showed that treatment had effect on DMY (r2 = 0.7341; p< 0.01) at 14 weeks but not on CPY (r2 = 0.3705; p>0.05). Mean ME concentration in the forage was not influenced by either manure or fertilizer application. Strong correlation between nutrients and V. villosa age at harvest was observed. It was therefore concluded that, though fertilization had no effect on nutrient content, it improved their overall yield.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , Mengzhi Wang , D.M. Kuria , Zhang Jie and W.O. Ayako
  Effect of forage type and chemical composition on vigor of rumen microbial community was investigated in vitro. Dry herbage samples used as culture media substrates were obtained from Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis established and harvested at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. Chemical analyses and constitution of incubation buffer solutions were done following standard procedures. Rumen liquor was obtained from 3 mature male goats (LW: 232 kg) fitted with rumen cannulae, housed in a well-ventilated group pen and fed a basal diet of fresh grass and supplemented with Lucerne hay. Bottles (225 mL capacity) containing 120 mL of the liquor-buffer mixture (1:2 v/v) and 1.2 g of substrate (30:70 soluble starch:dry forage samples milled to pass 1mm sieve) were incubated (39C) under anaerobic condition and microbial culture harvested after 24 h and determined. Data was analyzed using SAS. As expected, DM and fibre content increased whereas CP and EE content decreased with advancing forage maturity. It was noted that, culture media based on herbage harvested young had higher bacteria and protozoal biomass compared to those based on older herbage. The overall mean for bacterial and protozoal biomass in Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis based media were 0.325, 0.3782 and 0.3712 mg mL 1 and 0.2221, 0.2344 and 0.2539 mg mL 1, respectively. Results therefore indicate that forage type and chemical composition had significant effect on the vigor of rumen microbial community.
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