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Articles by W.I.A. Saber
Total Records ( 5 ) for W.I.A. Saber
  W.I.A. Saber and Noura E. El-Naggar
  From the rotted Jerusalem artichoke tubers, 11 fungi were isolated on synthetic medium containing inulin as a sole carbon source. On the base of inulinase activity on inulin (I), one of them was selected and identified as Aspergillus tamarii AR-IN9. Incubation of A. tamarii AR-IN9 for 72 h, pretreatment of inulin-containing agro-wastes in autoclave at 20 Ib/in2, 3% corn steep liquor in the growth medium, pH 5.5 and 35°C were the best conditions for inulinase production. The overall production reached up to 71.97 U mL-1. Aspergillus tamarii AR-IN9 showed invertase activity on sucrose (S), with high values of I/S ratio which indicating that the fungus is active in inulinase production. Inulinase activity reached its maximum at pH 5.2 and 45°C. The enzyme was still stable by 80% or more at the pH range from 4.4 to 7.2 for 24 h and by 75% at 50°C for 90 min. The metal ions; MgCl2, CoCl2 and MnCl2 positively modulated inulinase activity. The resultant inulinase showed high hydrolysis activity on Jerusalem artichoke (71.64%), dahlia tubers (67.55%) and chicory roots (55.11%). Therefore, various agro-wastes and inulin-containing materials could be economically hydrolyzed with A. tamarii AR-IN9 inulinase into fructose, which has many therapeutic and industrial aspects. Besides the beneficial environmental impact by the bioremediation of such agro-wastes.
  W.I.A. Saber , K.M. Ghanem and M.S. El-Hersh
  Isolation and identification of rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing fungi were studied under laboratory conditions. Fungal isolates that displayed the highest ratio of clear zone/colony diameter on plates of phosphate solubilization medium, were selected and identified as Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. The optimum condition for RP solubilization were found to be at the 6th (A. niger) and 7th (Penicillium sp.) day of incubation with shaking (150 rpm) at 30°C and pH ranging from 5.6 to 6.0. Glucose followed by fructose and xylose supported the RP solubilization process in the presence of 2.5 g L-1 RP as the optimum concentration. The overall soluble P after optimization studies on RP were 99.7 (A. niger) and 77.5 mg L-1 (Penicillium sp.). During the fermentation process, there was remarkable reduction in the final culture pH. The titratable acidity was positively correlated with RP solubilization. Under NaCl salt stress both fungi were able to solubilize RP, in which, A. niger was more tolerant than Penicillium sp. The dual and individual cultures of fungi solubilized sources of phosphate commonly exist in soil and also, possessed phytase activity. Under in vivo conditions, the inoculation of mung bean seeds with A. niger and/or Penicillium sp. in the presence of RP or calcium superphosphate (CSP), increased significantly the growth (except for branches No. plant-1), seed yield and P-uptake, as well as, improved the nodulation status and population of total and phosphate dissolving fungi in the rhizospheric soil of mung bean. These inoculations saved about 1/3 phosphate fertilizer dose. Hereby, these combined effects encourage the potential use of the isolated fungi in the biosolubilization of RP in soil plant system.
  W.I.A. Saber , K.M. Abd El-Hai and K.M. Ghoneem
  Experiments were carried out to correlate the biochemical features of Trichoderma species and Rhizobium leguminosarum to both biocontrol of Botrytis fabae and improving the productivity of faba bean. Of several Trichoderma species, isolated from phyllosphere of faba bean, six isolates, which grew considerably faster than B. fabae and have moderate to very good antagonism against this pathogen, were selected. Trichoderma’s growth inhibiting properties of B. fabae were due to the combined action of non-volatile and volatile metabolites (with antibiotic nature) and the secretion of cell-wall degrading enzymes. Trichoderma viride (tag3 and tag4) and T. harzianum tag7 have shown to be efficient mycoparasites on B. fabae (in which the mycelium appeared to be fragmented hyphae, vacuolated and disrupted as a result of Trichoderma parasitism). These three Trichoderma isolates were further applied in field of faba bean combined with R. leguminosarum which, the chromatographical analysis of its supernatant showed activity in growth promoter substances. The dual inoculation of seeds with a mixture of R. leguminosarum and T. viride tag4 then foliar spraying of the developed plants with the spore suspension of the same T. viride tag4 at the 35th and 55th day from sowing reduced chocolate spot disease and enhanced nodulation, nitrogenase activity and nitrogen fixing bacterial population in the rhizosphere. In addition to the improvements in the physiological activities (photosynthetic pigments, total phenol and polyphenol oxidase), plant growth and yield. On average, this treatment recorded about 57% reduction in chocolate spot disease and 23% increase in faba bean yield, compared to control plants. Therefore, a commercial production of an inoculum based on a mixture of Rhizobium and Trichoderma is very encouraged.
  W.I.A. Saber , M.M. El-Metwally and M.S. El-Hersh
  The rapid growth of poultry industry has linked with increased output of keratin containing wastes. Keratinous wastes can be readily fermented to useful products and commodity chemicals by the appropriate microbes. The present research concerning biodegradation of keratinous wastes. From 82 fungal isolates, 27 isolates have keratinolytic activity. Identification tests indicated that the potent isolates were Alternaria tenuissima K2 and Aspergillus nidulans K7. Using chicken feather powder as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, keratinase productivity were 53.4 and 55.8 U mL-1 by Alt. tenuissima K2 and A. nidulans K7 at the 6th and 5th day of incubation, respectively. Using additional carbon and nitrogen sources were not found to promote keratinase productivity, except when using starch and maltose. pH 7.5, 35°C and 7.5% inoculum ratio were the best for both keratinase production and feather solubilization by both fungi. Among different keratin containing wastes, chicken, duck and goose feathers were the most degradable keratinous wastes by Alt. tenuissima K2 and A. nidulans K7. During the course of investigation, keratinase production and degradation of keratinous wastes were positively and significantly correlated. Incubation of the produced keratinases at the optimum pH (8.5) and temperature (40°C) with different keratinous wastes led to about 70% hydrolysis of chicken, duck, goose and turkey feathers after 24 h of incubation. Goat hair, sheep wool and buffalo horn showed lower response towards keratinolytic hydrolysis. Therefore, keratinous wastes can be biologically degraded by either isolated fungi or their keratinases into useful products.
  W.I.A. Saber , Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar and Samia AbdAllah AbdAl-Aziz
  Two sequenced screening trials were carried out on 21 fungi isolated from decayed rice straw. The aim was to obtain fungal isolates with cellulolytic activity and rock phosphate (RP) solubilization ability for employing them in organic acid production from rice or wheat straw. Penicillium, Aspergillus and Stachybotrys were the predominant isolated genera. On the base of cellulase (filter paperase, carboxymethyl cellulase and β-glucosidase) production, RP solubilization efficiency and antagonism tests, two fungi were selected and molecularly identified as A. niger GU 295947 and P. chrysogenum GU 295948. Under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions of rice straw with RP, the maximum cellulase production and RP solubilization were recorded after 4 weeks incubation in the presence of 75 mg P2O5 from RP and 7.5% (v/w) fungal inoculum. Applying these fermentation conditions on rice and wheat straw, using individual or dual inoculation of both fungi led to more than 40% loss in the weight of fermented straw, this was accompanied with the releasing of glucose and soluble phosphorus in the hydrolysate of fermented straw. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, the resulted organic acids by A. niger GU 295947 and/or P. chrysogenum GU 295948 in the hydrolysate of SSF were investigated. Acetic, ascorbic, citric, formic, itaconic, levulinic, maleic, oxalic and succinic acids were detected. Their presence and concentrations were varying according to the substrate and the microorganism. The most noticeable thing was the broadspectrum varieties and the higher concentrations of produced organic acids when rice or wheat straw was used in combination with RP. Oxalic acid was the highest (40.0 mg g-1 straw) detected organic acid in the hydrolysate of fermented straw with RP by P. chrysogenum GU 295948. This study suggests production of organic acids especially, oxalic and succinic acids as the major organic molecules by such fermentation.
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