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Articles by W.I. Wan Ishak
Total Records ( 2 ) for W.I. Wan Ishak
  M.A. Awal and W.I. Wan Ishak
  In this study, accurate Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different palm age groups were determined by manual (direct) method. Optical methods for quantifying variation in LAI of different palm ages were evaluated using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser (PCA) as an indirect method. In the manual method, LAI values obtained were 0.69, 1.11, 2.38, 2.49, 3.41, 3.83, 4.05 and in the indirect method LAI values obtained were 1.75, 1.4, 1.14, 1.42, 2.87, 1.89, 3.05 for 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 16 year old palms, respectively. Results showed that the PCA LAI values were overestimated for immature palms but underestimated for mature palms. The PCA LAI values were overestimated by 30.8-153% for 2 to 3-year old palms and underestimated by 24-52% for beyond 6-year old palms as compared to manual measurement. The relationship between palm age and LAI was also established in this study. A strong linear relationship between direct LAI and palm age was observed with a correlation coefficient, R = 0.90. However, the relationship between PCA LAI and palm age was weak and not significant. A relationship was observed between PCA LAI and direct LAI with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.57. The study shows that it was possible to rapidly determine LAI using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser. This rapid and non-destructive method saves labour when compared to manual measurements. However, this instrument gave inconsistent of LAI values in respect to oil palm age.
  W.I. Wan Ishak , M.A. Awal and R. Elango
  This study was carried out to create a new method of transplanting for various types of vegetables. An automated transplanter has been designed, developed and tested to be integrated with the main Gantry System in a greenhouse. The method was used by using the latest concepts using the jiffy peat pot (biodegradable). A Cartesian Configuration was used for the seed transplanter movement system which operates in a 3-axis format. The Auto CAD 2002 software was used to develop a 3D concept design of the proposed transplanter. The transplanter used electricity as its power supply. This machine consisted of a quick attach 3 point hitch, an X-axis module, a Z-axis module, an auger, a pot tray, a gripper and a watering unit. The transplanter operated automatically using a Graphical User Interface developed by Visual Basic 6.0 software. A stepper motor and a DC motor were used to drive the axes module. It was configured to integrate with the control system software which was developed by using FP WIN GR software and then downloaded to the Nais FP2 PLC, as hardware of the system.
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