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Articles by W.H. Himratul-Aznita
Total Records ( 6 ) for W.H. Himratul-Aznita
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita and A. Ansary
  Periodontal disease is a global public health problem, including in Malaysia. The destruction of the periodontium has been associated with subgingival plaque microflora. Prevotella intermedia has been categorized as a periodontopathic bacteria as it contributes to the development and progression of periodontal disease. Therefore, a study on P.intermediaís virulent properties is important for the understanding of periodontal disease. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the virulence effect of the intracellular toxin. In the study, intracellular toxin of P.intermedia from ninety isolates were obtained and injected subcutaneously in male balb/c mice, aged between 8-12 weeks old. The results showed that the intracellular toxin from all P.intermedia isolates were able to cause the development of localized lesions on the skin of balb/c mice when 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mL filtrates were used. In addition, it was found that the degree of skin lesions on the balb/c mice was dose dependent as the infective dose was found to correspond to the development of larger lesion accompanied by skin coagulative necrosis. In the second part of the study, the intracellular toxin was heated for 1, 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at different temperatures of 37 and 60 C prior to the infection in mice. It was discovered that the intracellular toxin was not stable and sensitive towards high temperature and is thermolabile when the activity was terminated upon heating to 60 C as none of the injected mice developed skin lesion.
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita and Z. Zainal-Abidin
  Dental plaque is a thin film of microorganisms on the tooth surfaces and contributes to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. It has been widely known that the usage of antimicrobial oral rinses plays an important role in maintaining oral hygiene mainly by reducing the numbers of dental plaque microbes. This study has been carried out with the aim of comparing the clinical effectiveness of Chlorhexidine (CHX) (Oradex®) and commercialized clove extract (Mustika Ratu®) oral rinses in reducing dental plaque microorganisms. In addition, the aim was also to determine the duration of effects and magnitude of suppression of plaque microbes with the usage of the oral rinses. The antibacterial effects of CHX and clove extract oral rinses of dental plaque microbes were evaluated in healthy adults, which were not on any antibiotic treatment for the past 6 months. The oral rinses were tested on volunteers for a period of 30 min interval for up to 120 min. Volunteers were required to suspend normal oral hygiene habits and on the sampling day, the tooth surfaces of each volunteer were swabbed, followed by rinsing with the specified oral rinse. The tooth surfaces were swabbed again after 30, 60 and 120 min. Swab samples were serially diluted and plated on BHI agar. Phenotypic appearance and the colony forming units (CFU mL 1) were obtained. Results indicated that bacterial colony formation was significantly inhibited by both oral rinses and exhibited similar levels of antibacterial activity. However, the oral rinse containing CHX exhibited a longer duration of activity in controlling oral microbes compared to clove extract oral rinse. In conclusion, CHX has a better antimicrobial action to reduce and exhibit longer magnitude of suppression of dental plaque microbes than clove extract oral rinse.
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita , T.B. Taiyeb Ali , K. Sushil , S.L.A. Zainuddin , A.A. Mahmood and A. Ansary
  The study was undertaken with the aims of identifying strains providing virulent toxin and to observe the histological effect of the toxin in mice. Plaque samples were collected from adult periodontitis patients. P. intermedia were recovered from subgingival periodontal pocket with depths of 5 mm or greater. Ninety P. intermedia isolates were identified based on its bacteriological properties, gram staining and biochemical characteristics. The clinical isolates of P. intermedia were assessed for their potential and ability to produce toxin and form skin lesion in balb/c mice. 108, 1010 and 1012 cells mL 1 of bacterial suspension were used in the study. No lesion was observed in mice injected with 108 cells mL 1 and only three P. intermedia with concentration 1010 cells mL 1 were able to induce localized skin lesion in balb/c mice. However, all isolates causes balb/c mice to develop localized skin lesion when 1012 cells mL 1 was used. Infected mice appeared cachectic and the histological effect of the skin lesion showed that all lesions were localised at the injection site and causes tissue damage with skin necrosis and hair loss.
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita and A.R. Fathilah
  The study was carried out with the aim of demonstrating quantitatively the presence of microorganisms adhered to toothbrush bristles and to determine the potential of using antimicrobial agent (such as chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and hexetidine (HX)) in commercialized mouth rinses to reduce microbial contamination. The study was carried out by enumerating the total colony counts of bristles-adhered microbes after three weeks of normal oral hygiene followed by rinsing the toothbrushes with CHX, HX, tap water and deionized water independently following a strict planned schedule. Rinsing toothbrush with tap water was included in the study as a control due to the normal way of cleaning toothbrush after use in every home. Whereas, sterilized deionized water do not contain any ions, minerals and is microbes-free. The total colony counts of microbes obtained from the toothbrush rinsed with tap water, deionized water, CHX and HX were 62.6x106 CFU mL-1, 74.4x106 CFU mL-1, 2.4x106 CFU mL-1 and 7.6x106 CFU mL-1, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Actinomyces naeslundii and Clostridium sp. were isolated from toothbrush rinsed with tap water. Staphylococcus aureus and Peptostreptococcus sp. were obtained from toothbrush rinsed with deionized water. Actinomyces sp. and Clostridium sp. were recovered from toothbrush rinsed with CHX and only Staphylococcus aureus was obtained from toothbrush rinsed with HX. Although toothbrush rinsed with mouth rinses containing antimicrobial agent such as CHX and HX still harbour microorganisms, but the microbial load has been very much lowered compared to the control toothbrush. Thus, this indicates that toothbrush rinsing with mouth rinse after the normal oral hygiene is very convenient and cost effective to reduce toothbrush contamination.
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita , R.N.S. Raja Dzulkeffli and S.H. Muhadi
  This study was carried out to investigate the presence of contaminating microorganisms on regularly used toothbrush and to determine the antibiotics resistance of the isolated microbes towards selective antimicrobial agents. A few types of different species were recovered from the toothbrush, which include Pseudomonas sp., Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Aerococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. These microbes adhered to the toothbrush bristles and could be acquired from dust, skin, water or even the water pipeline system. All isolated species were tested against ampicillin, kanamycin, sulfonamide and polymyxin-B. As high as 67.5% of isolates were resistant towards ampicillin and 47.5% towards kanamycin. Besides these two antibiotics, 35.0 and 17.5% isolates were found to be resistant towards sulfonamide and polymyxin-B, respectively. In addition, all species were shown to have multiple resistance towards various antibiotics tested and all isolated species were resistant to at least two different antibiotics. Thus, these multiple antimicrobial resistance ability could be transferred from the microbes that contaminate the toothbrush to human through the prolonged usage of the same toothbrush.
  W.H. Himratul-Aznita and A. Ansary
  The study was undertaken with the aims of identifying Prevotella intermedia virulent strains from adult periodontitis and to detemine its virulent gene via molecular analysis. The clinical isolates were assessed for their potential and ability to produce toxin and form skin lesion in balb/c mice. Infected mice appeared cachectic and the histological effect of the skin lesion showed that all lesions were localized at the injection site and causes tissue damage with skin necrosis and hair loss. Prevotella intermedia UMD 5 was the most virulent isolate and thus was selected for shotgun cloning. Partially digested genomic DNA (2-9 kb) from P. intermedia UMD 5 was cloned into the Bam HI site of E. coli pUC 18. The inserted gene for all recombinant clones was expressed in balb/c mice. It was found that only one clone was able to induce localized skin lesion in mice. The cloned gene expressed well by inducing skin lesion in mice when incubated in aerobic environment, but the expression was better in combination of aerobic followed with anaerobic environment, producing bigger skin lesion area in balb/c mice. Thus, the presence or absence of O2 did not suppress the level of toxin production for anaerobic bacterial gene cloned in the aerobic system. Histological effect of the skin lesion showed that lesions were localized at the injection site and causes tissue damage with skin necrosis and hair loss. In addition, the recombinant plasmid was found to be stable in the host system. The clone was further analyzed via restriction analysis and was found to have a DNA insert of 4 kb.
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