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Articles by W. Yang
Total Records ( 4 ) for W. Yang
  X Bi , W Fang , L. S Wang , G. D Stoner and W. Yang

Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) produce chemopreventive effects in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis; however, the mechanisms of inhibition were not determined. Herein, we used two mouse models of human colorectal cancer to determine if dietary BRBs would inhibit colorectal tumor development and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. We found that a 12-week feeding of BRBs significantly inhibited intestinal tumor formation in both models; reducing tumor incidence by 45% and tumor multiplicity by 60% in Apc1638+/– mice and tumor incidence and multiplicity by 50% in Muc2–/– mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that BRBs inhibit tumor development in Apc1638+/– mice by suppressing β-catenin signaling and in Muc2–/– mice by reducing chronic inflammation. Intestinal cell proliferation was inhibited by BRBs in both animal models; however, the extent of mucus cell differentiation was not changed in either model. Collectively, our data suggest that BRBs are highly effective in preventing intestinal tumor development in both Apc1638+/– and Muc2–/– mice through targeting multiple signaling pathways. Cancer Prev Res; 3(11); 1443–50. ©2010 AACR.

  W Fang , M. L Goldberg , N. M Pohl , X Bi , C Tong , B Xiong , T. J Koh , A. M Diamond and W. Yang

Selenium-binding protein (SBP) 1 is present in reduced levels in several cancer types as compared with normal tissues, and lower levels are associated with poor clinical prognosis. Another selenium-containing protein, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), has been associated with cancer risk and development. The interaction between these representatives of different classes of selenoproteins was investigated. Increasing SBP1 levels in either human colorectal or breast cancer cells by transfection of an expression construct resulted in the reduction of GPX1 enzyme activity. Increased expression of GPX1 in the same cell types resulted in the transcriptional and translational repression of SBP1, as evidenced by the reduction of SBP1 messenger RNA and protein and the inhibition of transcription measured using an SBP1 reporter construct. The opposing effects of SBP1 and GPX1 on each other were also observed when GPX1 was increased by supplementing the media of these tissue culture cells with selenium, and the effect of selenium on SBP1 was shown to be GPX1 dependent. Decreasing or increasing GPX1 levels in colonic epithelial cells of mice fed a selenium-deficient, -adequate or -supplemented diet resulted in the opposing effect on SBP1 levels. These data are explained in part by the demonstration that SBP1 and GPX1 form a physical association, as determined by coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. The results presented establish an interaction between two distinct selenium-containing proteins that may enhance the understanding of the mechanisms by which selenium and selenoproteins affect carcinogenesis in humans.

  C. Pan , W. Yang , J.P. Barona , Y. Wang , M. Niggli , P. P. Mohideens , Y. Wangs and J.E. Foleys
  AimsTo compare the efficacy and tolerability of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, with the alpha glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes. MethodsThis multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm study compared the efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin (100 mg daily, given as 50 mg twice daily, n = 441) and acarbose (up to 300 mg daily, given as three equally divided doses, n = 220) during 24-week treatment in drug-naive patients with Type 2 diabetes. ResultsMonotherapy with vildagliptin or acarbose decreased glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (baseline ≈ 8.6%) to a similar extent during 24-week treatment. The adjusted mean change from baseline to end-point (AMΔ) in HbA1c was −1.4 ± 0.1% and −1.3 ± 0.1% in patients receiving vildagliptin and acarbose, respectively, meeting the statistical criterion for non-inferiority (upper limit of 95% confidence interval for between-treatment difference ≤ 0.4%). The decrease in fasting plasma glucose was similar with acarbose (−1.5 ± 0.2 mmol/l) and vildagliptin (−1.2 ± 0.1 mmol/l). Body weight did not change in vildagliptin-treated patients (−0.4 ± 0.1 kg) but decreased in acarbose-treated patients (−1.7 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001 vs. vildagliptin). The proportion of patients experiencing any adverse event (AE) was 35% vs. 51% in patients receiving vildagliptin or acarbose, respectively; gastrointestinal AEs were significantly more frequent with acarbose (25.5%) than vildagliptin (12.3%, P < 0.001). No hypoglycaemia was reported for either group. ConclusionsVildagliptin is effective and well tolerated in patients with Type 2 diabetes, demonstrating similar glycaemic reductions to acarbose, but with better tolerability.
  C. Pan , W. Yang , W. Jia , J. Weng , G. Liu , B. Luo , X. Li , Z. Fu and H. Tian
  Aim  To describe the status of glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes in 2006.

Methods  Subjects having registered for care for > 12 months at a diabetes clinic were enrolled in this study. Glycaemic control was determined by HbA1c and plasma glucose levels; information about self-reported adherence to treatments was obtained by questionnaire; psychological well-being was assessed by use of a modified World Health Organization-5 Well-being Index; and quality of life was measured by use of a modified Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) survey. All data were tabulated and statistical analyses were performed.

Results  A total of 2702 patients were enrolled during 2006. Only 23% of patients achieved an HbA1c level of < 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) as per the 2007 China guideline for Type 2 diabetes and only 16.2% followed all treatment recommendations from healthcare providers. Of the patients, 46.0-68.6% of the patients showed positive psychological well-being. A quality-of-life survey showed that 28.5-50.6% of the patients experienced various diabetes-related emotional problems. Large percentages (approximately 50%) of patients were experiencing psychological insulin resistance.

Conclusions  Although in China therapies for Type 2 diabetes are more effective and available than ever before, the patient outcomes remain disappointing. Problems with glycaemic control, self-reported adherence to treatments, psychological well-being and quality of life, all of which are key to diabetes control, are common among Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

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