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Articles by W. Song
Total Records ( 4 ) for W. Song
  Z. Pei , X. Chen , C. Sun , H. Du , H. Wei , W. Song , Y. Yang , M. Zhang , W. Lu , R. Cheng and F. Luo


To examine single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 gene (PTPN22) and to study their association with Type 1 diabetes in a Chinese cohort.


Three hundred and sixty-four young patients with Type 1 diabetes and 719 healthy children were included in this case-controlled study. The genotypes of rs1217385, rs2488457 (-1123C>G), rs1217414, rs1217419, rs3765598 and rs2476601 (1858C>T) in the PTPN22 gene were determined using the SNaPshot method. Alleles, genotypes and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients with Type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and clinical traits/autoantibody status was also analysed.


The single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1217419, located in the second intron of the PTPN22 gene was associated with Type 1 diabetes (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.14-1.97, P = 0.003). An additional single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1217385, was also associated with Type 1 diabetes; however, the association was secondary to that of rs1217419. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with Type 1 diabetes (-1123G>C) had only marginal association with Type 1 diabetes in our study. A marginal association was also identified between -1123G>C and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody positivity in patients with Type 1 diabetes. There was no association between the single nucleotide polymorphism 1858C>T and Type 1 diabetes in our studied cohort.


Our study confirmed that PTPN22 is a gene that contributes to Type 1 diabetes susceptibility. The primary association occurs with single nucleotide polymorphism rs1217419 and there is clear heterogeneity of the association between PTPTN22 polymorphisms and Type 1 diabetes in a Chinese population compared with other populations.

  S. Liao , J. Mei , W. Song , Y. Liu , Y.-D. Tan , S. Chi , P. Li , X. Chen and S. Deng


The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) proposed that a one-time value of fasting plasma glucose of 5.1 mmol/l or over at any time of the pregnancy is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. We evaluated the repercussions of the application of this threshold in pregnant Han Chinese women.


This is a retrospective study of 5360 (72.3% of total) consecutively recruited pregnant Han Chinese women in one centre from 2008 to 2011. These women underwent a two-step gestational diabetes diagnostic protocol according to the previous American Diabetes Association criteria. The IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was used to reclassify these 5360 women. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were compared among the women classified as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (approximately 90% were treated), those reclassified as having gestational diabetes by the single IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion (untreated), but not as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria, and those with normal glucose tolerance.


There were 626 cases of gestational diabetes defined by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (11.7%) and these cases were associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes when compared with the women with normal glucose tolerance. With the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion, another 1314 (24.5%) women were reclassified as having gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes classified by the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was associated with gestational hypertension (P = 0.0094) and neonatal admission to nursery (= 0.035) prior to adjustment for maternal age and BMI, but was no longer a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment.


The simple IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion increased the Chinese population with gestational diabetes by 200%. The increased population with gestational diabetes was not significantly associated with excess obstetric and neonatal morbidity.

  J Geldart and W. Song

Incorporating dynamic, general computational knowledge into Semantic Web ontologies is becoming increasingly important. The Semantic Web is now being used to model the behaviour of highly dynamic domains such as web-services, but current approaches to ontologies [such as Web Ontology Language (OWL)] are static and crisp. This article develops a new semantics for Resource Description Framework (RDF) based upon ideas from category theory. In so doing, we not only decouple RDF's semantics from crisp set theory, opening the door to easy adoption of models of uncertainty, but also allow the use of equational reasoning in a principled fashion within RDF. We demonstrate the abilities of equational reasoning, whilst explaining its semantic principles in terms of our RDF category, using an example from the domain of genealogy. We further develop an algebra of (equational) ontologies which allows us to express fine relations between ontologies and to build more complex ontologies out of simpler ones.

  M. Li , G. Ji , F. Feng , W. Song , R. Ling , D. Chen , X. Liu , J. Li , H. Shi , W. Wang and H. Zhang

Objective: We summarized our experience of living-related small bowel transplantation and postoperative management of 3 patients with short gut syndrome.

Methods: Patient #1, an 18-year-old boy, received a 150-cm segment of distal ileum with a vascular pedicle of distal superior mesenteric artery and vein, which was donated by his father. Patient #2, a 15-year-old boy, received a 160-cm graft of distal ileum from his mother. Patient #3, a 17-year-old boy, received a 170-cm graft of distal ileum from his father. The graft artery and vein were anastomosed to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava, respectively, in end-to-side fashion using 7/0 Prolene suture. Intestinal continuity was restored by anastomosis of proximal end of the graft to the recipients' own proximal jejunum, the distal end was left open as a stoma. The recipient distal gut was anastomosed to the distal end of the graft. All 3 recipients were given FK506 (tacrolimus) regularly combined with periodic mycophenolate mofetil. In cases of acute rejection, large doses of steroids were administered to the recipients.

Results: The recipients and donors had fairly unremarkable postoperative courses. So far, patient #1 has survived for 7 years and 6 months with a well-functioning graft and without requirement for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support. His body weight increased 20 kg and of his life quality has dramatically improved. Patient #2, however, died of acute rejection with fatal sepsis at 5 months after transplantation. Patient #3 has survived for 3 years and 8 months enjoying a normal life. Postoperative recovery of all 3 donors was unremarkable. They were discharged 12 days after surgery without complications.

Conclusion: Outcomes of the implantation using the distal ileum as a graft in living-related small bowel transplantation have been satisfactory for both recipients and donors. It is feasible to anastomose the graft artery and vein to the recipient infrarenal aorta and vena cava. The intestinal continuity can be restored by a 1-stage strategy with minimal risk to the recipient. Appropriate application and adjustment of immune suppressors are crucial for the recipients to experience high-quality lives.
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