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Articles by W. GAO
Total Records ( 5 ) for W. GAO
  Y.-H. HU , Y.-J. LIU , L.-X. TIAN , H.-J. YANG , G.-Y. LIANG and W. GAO
  A growth experiment was conducted to determine the optimal carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO: L) ratio for juvenile yellowfin seabream cultured in 340-L indoor recirculating tanks. Seven isonitrogenous (450 g kg−1 dietary protein) and isoenergetic (14.1 MJ kg−1) diets with increasing CHO: L ratios (0.03–5.09 g: g) were fed to triplicate groups of 30 fish with an initial weight of 4.91 g for 56 days. Fish were fed to satiation twice a day and the water temperature ranged between 28 and 31.7 °C during the experimental period. Survival was high in all the groups and was not affected by dietary treatments. Best weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios of 0.29 and 0.72, which were not significantly different from that of 0.03, 1.26 and 1.92, but apparently higher than that of 3.22 and 5.09. Feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein production value (PPV) followed the same general pattern as WG and SGR. Highest level of energy production value (EPV) was found in fish fed diets with CHO: L ratio of 0.72. Proximate compositions of fish whole body and tissues were markedly affected by dietary CHO: L ratios. Whole body, muscle and liver lipid increased as CHO: L ratios decreased, whereas moisture contents were reduced. Dietary CHO: L ratios had no significant effect on protein content in whole body and muscle. Plasma total cholesterol levels of fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios less than 0.72 were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Triacylglyceride levels decreased linearly as dietary CHO: L ratios increased. Viscerosomatic index (VSI) significantly increased as dietary CHO: L ratios decreased. Intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPF) of fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios less than 1.92 were significantly higher than those fed CHO: L ratios of 3.22 and 5.09. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not vary between the test diets. Based on second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG against dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels, 84.1 g kg−1 of carbohydrate and 136.3 g kg−1 of lipid, corresponding to a CHO: L ratio of 0.62, in a diet holding 450 g kg−1 of crude protein and 14 KJ g−1 of metabolizable energy, proved to be optimal for juvenile yellowfin seabream.
  F. Zhang , L. Dong , C. P. Zhang , B. Li , J. Wen , W. Gao , S. Sun , F. Lv , H. Tian , J. Tuomilehto , L. Qi , C. L. Zhang , Z. Yu , X. Yang and G. Hu
  Aims  To investigate the trend in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus during 1999-2008 in women living in urban Tianjin, China.

Methods  A universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus has become an integral part of the antenatal care in Tianjin, China from 1998. A total of 105 473 pregnant women living in the six urban districts of Tianjin, China, participated in the gestational diabetes mellitus screening programme between December 1998 and December 2008. The screening test consisted of a 50-g 1-h glucose test. Women who had a glucose reading ≥ 7.8 mmol/l at the initial screening were invited to undergo the standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with a 75-g glucose load. Gestational diabetes mellitus was confirmed using the World Health Organization's diagnostic criteria.

Results  The adjusted prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus increased by 2.8 times during 1999-2008, from 2.4 to 6.8% (P < 0.0001 for linear trend). In 2008, the age-specific prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was the highest among women aged 30-34 years (11.3%) and lowest among women aged 25 and under (1.2%). In women aged 35 years and more, the prevalence was 5.3%.

Conclusions  The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus has markedly been increasing in a universally screened urban Chinese female population and has become an important public health problem in China.

  W. Gao , A.J. Qin , W.J. Jin and H.X. Shao
  Interleukin-8 homolog (vIL8) is a viral chemokine encoded by Marek’s Disease Virus (MDV) genome. To study transcriptional regulation of vIL8 gene helps to investigate the role of its encoding protein in pathogenesis of MDV. In order to explore the transcriptional regulation mechanism of vIL8 gene, its putative promoter (position-1,362 to +81 bp) was amplified from the genome of MDV GA strain. Then, the pGL3-Basic luciferase reporter vectors bearing 5' potential vIL8 promoter segments of different lengths were transfected into second-generation Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEF) and primary Chicken Embryo Bursal (CEB) cells, respectively. The promoter activity was detected using luciferase assay system. The results show that the vIL8 promoter had activity in both CEF and CEB cells but the levels of activity were different between these two cell types. The vIL8 promoter region between -470 and +10 bp almost had no activity in CEF but had remarkably higher activity in CEB cells (0 vs. 23.2) suggesting some transcriptional regulatory element binding sites specific to lymphoid tissue may exist in this region. Therefore, the vIL8 promoter is very likely specific to lymphoid tissue. All the results may make an important basis for the further study on transcriptional regulation mechanisms of vIL8.
  E. A. Grabsch , S. Ghaly-Derias , W. Gao and B. P. Howden
  The new chromogenic agar chromID VRE (cIDVRE; bioMérieux) was compared with bile esculin agar (BD) containing 6 mg/liter vancomycin for the detection of colonization with vanB-containing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). At 48 h of incubation, the results obtained with both media were comparable. However, cIDVRE detected significantly more VRE at 24 h (39.3% versus 21.3%, P = 0.003), and its use may facilitate the timely implementation of infection control procedures.
  S. Koti , K. Raja Reddy , G.W. Lawrence , V.R. Reddy , V.G. Kakani , D. Zhao and W. Gao
  To understand the effects of increased UV-B radiation on reniform nematode (Rotylenchus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) populations, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants were exposed to three levels of UV-B radiation [0 (control), 6 and 12 kJ m-2 day-1] in a glasshouse from emergence to early square stage. At each UV-B treatment, four populations [0 (N0), 2500 (N2500), 5000 (N5000) and 7500 (N7500)] of reniform nematodes were incorporated into the sterilized rooting medium. Plant growth, development, photosynthetic parameters, pigments, phenolics and the number of eggs and nematode numbers in the rooting medium were recorded at the end of the experiment, 40 DAS. Even though, UV-B radiation did not significantly affect plant growth and development, it did significantly increase leaf and root phenolic concentrations. UV-B treatments significantly decreased both the egg and nematode numbers in all the nematode population treatments. Significant negative correlation was found between cotton leaf phenolic concentration and egg (slope = -69.4; R2 = 0.72) and nematode (slope = 103; R2 = 0.53) numbers. Similarly, root phenolics also showed negative correlation with egg (slope = -3184; R2 = 0.26) and nematode numbers (slope = -5857; R2 = 0.30). Therefore, current and projected UV-B radiation levels may have an important regulatory influence on nematode populations.
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