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Articles by W. Al-Marzooqi
Total Records ( 8 ) for W. Al-Marzooqi
  I.T. Kadim , B.H.A. Al-Qamshui , O. Mahgoub , W. Al-Marzooqi and E.H. Johnson
  The efficacy of ascorbic acid in drinking water on performance of broiler chickens under closed and open-sided houses during hot (ambient temperature 36°C) and cool (ambient temperature 23°C) seasons were studied. The temperatures inside the poultry houses were 26°C (closed), 29°C (open-sided), 32°C (closed) and 37°C (open-sided) for cool and hot seasons, respectively. One-day-old chicks (432 birds) were housed in each closed and open-sided environment for each season. Birds were maintained under 23 hrs light and 1 hr dark cycle and offered ad libitum access water and feed. Broilers in both houses were randomly subjected to four drinking water treatments (9 birds in each 6 replicates/treatment): 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm ascorbic acid. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and rectal temperatures were recorded weekly. Ascorbic acid supplementation at 200-300 ppm was associated with a reduction in rectal temperatures during the hot season. Open-sided house depressed body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) during hot season. Compared to the control group, ascorbic acid improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio by 6%, 9% and 3% (cool season) and 8%, 11% and 5% (hot season). Birds supplemented with 200 ppm ascorbic acid had (P < 0.05) higher feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio than the control group during the cool season, while 300 ppm (P < 0.05) improved broiler performance including feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the hot season. Bird`s rectal temperature was higher (P < 0.05) during hot season in open-sided house and (P < 0.05) reduced by supplementing 200-300 ppm ascorbic acid. This study demonstrated that seasonal temperatures had a significant effect on broiler performance in open-sided house. Supplementation of drinking water with 200-300 ppm ascorbic acid ameliorated broiler performance in open-sided housing at high ambient temperatures.
  I.T. Kadim , B.H.A. Al-Qamshui , O. Mahgoub , W. Al-Marzooqi and E.H. Johnson
  High ambient temperature is one of the prominent stressors that elicits low meat quality characteristics in broiler meat. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation in drinking water on meat quality of broiler chickens reared in closed and open-sided houses during hot (ambient temperature 36oC) and cool (ambient temperature 23oC) seasons were studied. Four hundred and thirty two, one-day-old chicks were used for each house across the two seasons. Birds were maintained in 23 h light and 1 h dark cycles and offered ad libitum access to water and commercial broiler diets. Broilers in both houses were randomly subjected to four drinking water treatments (9 birds in each 6 replicates/treatment): 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm ascorbic acid. Pectoralis muscles were taken at 24 h postmortem and analyzed for ultimate pH, expressed juice, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force value, myofibril fragmentation index, sarcomere length and colour. Pectoralis muscles collected during the hot season had significantly (p<0.05) higher pH, lower expressed juice, darker colour meat (L*) than those collected during cool season group. During the hot season, meat samples from chicken reared in an open-sided house had significantly (p<0.0) higher pH and lower lightness value (L*) than those reared in a closed house. Supplementation of drinking water with various levels of ppm ascorbic acid did not significantly improve meat quality characteristics of broiler chicken reared in open-sided or closed housing at high ambient temperatures.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , I.T. Kadim , O. Mahgoub , M. Al-Busaidi , S.M. Al-Lawati , R. Al-Maqbaly , S. Al-Wheebi and A.N. Al-Bakery
  The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four varieties of barley (Beecher, Jimah 54, Jimah 51 and Jimah 58) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated, representing four different varieties of barley and were evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the barley varieties than the local birds. Out of the four barley varieties evaluated in this study, Beecher variety had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient and digestible content for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for Jimah 54 was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The variability in digestibility and digestible content in barley varieties can be attributed to the high fiber levels and the presence of beta-glucan. The results suggest that the class of chickens and variety significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , I.T. Kadim and O. Mahgoub
  The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four protein sources (soyabean meal, fish silage, sardine fish and fishmeal) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated; representing four different proteins sources and was evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the protein sources than the local birds. Out of the four protein sources evaluated in this study, fishmeal had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for fish silage was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids for soyabean meal is related to the presence of; antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitor. Fish silage shows a great potential to be used as protein supplements for poultry feeding. The results suggest that the class of chickens and protein source significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , I.M. Al-Moqbali , O. Mahgoub , K. Al-Kharousi , M. Al-Abri , S. Zekri , O. Alqaisi and N.M. Al-Saqri
  Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermally processed Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Methodology: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the nutritive value of raw or thermally processed PJP was evaluated through an ileal digestibility assay. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and ileal digestibility of crude fibre in the formulated diet (corn, raw and thermally processed PJP) were determined. The second experiment (a growth study) was designed to test the effect of thermal processing on the nutritive value of PJP (p<0.001). Seven dietary treatments were evaluated in experiment 2, namely, the basal diet, three levels of inclusion of raw PJP-based diets (5, 10 and 15%) and three levels of inclusion of processed PJP-based diets (5, 10 and 15%). Results: The results of experiment 1 showed that the AME of processed PJP was higher (24%) than that of raw PJP. The raw PJP had significantly lower AME content (10.16 vs 13.41 and 15.26 MJ kg–1) and lower apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of crude fibre (0.27 vs 0.46-0.65) compared to processed PJP and corn, respectively (p<0.001). The results of experiment 2, indicated that substitution of corn by 10% processed PJP significantly improved the crude fibre digestibility and AME (p<0.001) compared to the other dietary treatments. The weight gain of birds fed 10% processed PJP (55.13 g/bird/day) was similar to those of birds fed a basal diet (55.68 g/bird/day). Conclusion: Processed PJP can replace corn up to the level of 10% in broilers diets without affecting growth performance.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , Z.A.S. Al-Maskari , E.H. Johnson , K. Al-Kharousi , O. Mahgoub , N.M. Al-Saqri and Y. El Tahir
  Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the growth performance, meat quality characteristics and intestinal development of indigenous and commercial chicken strains raised under an intensive management system. Materials and Methods: One hundred eighty birds of local Omani and Cobb500 broiler chickens were divided into two groups of15 replicates with each replicate containing 6 birds. The birds were fed a non-medicated conventional corn-soybean meal diet. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. At the end of the growth experimental period (35 days), 15 birds per breed were randomly selected for morphological analysis of the jejunum and ileum, carcass and organ weight. Blood was collected for hematological and serum biochemistry analysis. Results: Hematological and serum analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the Omani and Cobb 500 broiler chickens, suggesting that the birds were healthy. The Cobb 500 showed a significantly higher feed intake (63.8%) and body weight gain (72.1%) and a better feed conversion ratio than that of the Omani breed (1.5 vs 1.96). Morphological analysis showed that Cobb 500 broilers had a greater villi height compared to the Omani breed (p<0.01). Conclusion: Villus development has a profound effect on the growth performance of chickens.
  W. Al-Marzooqi , K. Al-Kharousi , Y. El Tahir and E.H. Johnson
 

Background and Objective: The microflora in the gastrointestinal tract influences the digestion, health and wellbeing of chickens. This study was conducted to assess the relative abundance of bacterial microflora in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ilium and cecum) of indigenous local Omani chickens. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty one-day-old chicks of indigenous (local Omani) chickens were raised under an intensive management system and fed a nonmedicated corn-soybean meal diet from 0-35 days of age. Results: Using 16S rDNA-based analysis, the study showed that each intestinal segment developed its own bacterial community and the diversity of the bacterial community changed from one age period to the next. In addition, the 16S rDNA sequences of Lactobacillales were dominant in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum libraries, whereas the 16S rDNA sequences of Clostridiales were dominant in the cecum libraries. The relative abundance of the bacterial microbiota differed significantly (p<0.05) across different intestinal segments. Conclusion: Each region developed its own bacterial community and the relative abundances of the bacterial community were quite different.

  W. Al-Marzooqi
 

Background and Objective: The determination of ileal digestibility has become the preferred method for estimating amino acid availability. This study was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 3 feed ingredients using commercial and indigenous strains of chickens. Materials and Methods: Three experimental diets, representing three feed ingredients wheat, barley and sorghum were formulated and evaluated using six replicates of five birds per cage at 19 days of age. On day 23, after adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then, the birds were killed to sample the ileal digesta from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-cecal-colonic injunction. Results: Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible amino acid contents for all the cereal grains than local birds. Of the three cereal grains evaluated in this study, sorghum had the lowest amino acid digestibility coefficient and digestible content for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acid content estimates for wheat were the highest for both breeds (p<0.001). Conclusion: These data suggest that the classes of chickens significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible amino acid content in the feed ingredients assessed in this study.

 
 
 
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