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Articles by W. A. Davis
Total Records ( 7 ) for W. A. Davis
  P. Myhill , W. A. Davis , D. G. Bruce , I. R. Mackay , P. Zimmet and T. M. E. Davis

Aims To compare (i) the prevalence and incidence of chronic complications and (ii) cardiac and all-cause mortality in community-based patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) with those in Type 2 diabetic patients without antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD).

Methods Of the 1294 patients with clinically-defined Type 2 diabetes recruited to the longitudinal, observational Fremantle Diabetes Study between 1993 and 1996, 1255 (97%) had GAD antibodies measured at baseline. Complications were ascertained using standard criteria in patients returning for annual assessments until November 2001. Data on hospital admissions and mortality were available to the end of June 2006. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine independent predictors of first occurrence of complications and cardiac and all-cause mortality.

Results Forty-five (3.6%) subjects had LADA. Compared with the GAD antibody-negative patients, they had a similar prevalence and incidence of coronary heart (P = 0.48 and 0.80, respectively) and cerebrovascular (P = 0.64 and 0.29) disease and cardiac and all-cause mortality (P = 0.62 and 0.81, respectively). There was also a similar prevalence and incidence of retinopathy (P = 0.22 and 0.64, respectively) and neuropathy (P = 0.25 and 0.95), but microalbuminuria was less frequent both at baseline and during follow-up in the LADA subgroup in unadjusted models (P = 0.046) and after adjustment for other risk factors (P = 0.014 and 0.013).

Conclusions Except for a lower prevalence and incidence of nephropathy, LADA patients have a similar risk of complications and death to patients with clinically-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes without GAD antibodies. Cardiovascular risk factor management in LADA should, therefore, be as intensive as that for GAD antibody-negative patients.

  E. J. Hamilton , V. Rakic , W. A. Davis , S. A. P. Chubb , N. Kamber , R. L. Prince and T. M. E. Davis
  Aims  To determine the prevalence and biochemical/hormonal determinants of osteopenia and osteoporosis in adults with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods  One hundred and two patients (52 female, 50 male) with Type 1 diabetes aged 20-71 years underwent cross-sectional assessment of biochemical/hormonal markers of bone metabolism, and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement at forearm, hip and spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. BMD data were available for 102 age- and gender-matched population-based control subjects.

Results  After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common at the spine in males with Type 1 diabetes than in control subjects (P = 0.030). In Type 1 males, after adjustment for age and BMI, BMD, T- and Z-scores at the hip, femoral neck and spine were lower compared with age-matched control subjects (P ≤ 0.048). Female Type 1 patients and control subjects had similar BMDs and T- and Z-scores at all sites. On multiple linear regression analysis, which adjusted for the natural logarithm of the sex hormone binding globulin concentration, smoking status and alcohol consumption, and (for women) menopausal status, each of BMI, serum ionized calcium and serum alkaline phosphatase (negatively) were independently associated with BMD at the hip and femoral neck in Type 1 diabetic subjects.

Conclusions  Adult males with Type 1 diabetes have reduced bone density at the hip, femoral neck and spine when compared with age-matched control subjects. Impaired bone formation may occur in Type 1 diabetes.

  K. Schimke , S. A. P. Chubb , W. A. Davis , P. Phillips and T. M. E. Davis
  Aims  To assess whether, based on its relationship with complications of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), directed Helicobacter pylori serological screening is justified in diabetic patients prior to commencement of antiplatelet therapy.

Methods  We analysed data from the longitudinal, community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study (FDS). The present substudy included (i) 1301 patients (91.2% of the total FDS sample; mean age 62.0 ± 13.3 years, 49.5% male) with available sera from baseline assessment between 1993 and 1996, and (ii) a subset of 40 patients admitted to hospital for complicated PUD (bleeding and/or perforation) between baseline and end of June 2006. All hospital admissions for complicated PUD in the population of Western Australia were identified over the same period. Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies were measured in all patients at baseline and in the subset at the FDS visit prior to hospital admission.

Results Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was present in 60.6% of FDS patients at baseline and was independently associated with increasing age and non-Anglo-Celt/non-Asian ethnicity. There were 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.1, 3.9) first admissions for complicated PUD per 1000 patient-years, an incidence more than seven times that in the local general population. Independent baseline predictors of hospital admission were increasing age, serum urea, non-aspirin anticoagulant therapy, sulphonylurea therapy, peripheral arterial disease and diabetic retinopathy, but not aspirin use, H. pylori seropositivity or their interaction.

Conclusions  There are diabetes-specific risk factors for complicated PUD, including sulphonylurea use and vascular complications. Knowledge of H. pylori serological status does not predict complicated PUD in diabetes regardless of use of antiplatelet therapy.

  P. G. Fegan , W. A. Davis , N. Kamber , S. Sivakumar , J. Beilby and T. M. E. Davis
  Aims  To determine whether the reduction in urinary albumin excretion through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade found in intervention trials extends to community-based patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods  We analysed data from 302 participants in the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study who commenced angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy during follow-up and who had an annual assessment on either side of this therapeutic change.

Results  At baseline, the patients had a mean age of 63.8 years, a median diabetes duration of 4 years, a median HbA1c of 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and a geometric mean (sd range) urinary albumin:creatinine ratio of 3.3 mg/mmol (0.8-13.1 mg/mmol). The percentages with normo-, micro- and macroalbuminuria were 49.0, 38.4 and 12.6%, respectively. During 6.1 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, initiation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade was associated with a larger geometric mean (sd range) absolute albumin:creatinine ratio reduction in the patients with macroalbuminuria compared with those who had either normo- or microalbuminuria [-40.9 (-825.7 to 159.9) mg/mmol) vs. 1.7 (-1.6 to 20.0) mg/mmol and -0.5 (-23.0 to 39.5) mg/mmol, respectively; < 0.001]. These changes remained significant after adjustment for changes in blood pressure and other potentially confounding variables, including drug dose and angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype. The post-treatment median albumin:creatinine ratios were 35.4 and 27.4% lower than before treatment in those with micro- or macroalbuminuria, respectively.

Conclusions  Usual-care initiation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade confers a quantitatively similar renal benefit to that in intervention trials in Type 2 diabetes.

  M. H. B. Zakaria , W. A. Davis and T. M. E. Davis


To determine the incidence and predictors of tendon ruptures requiring hospitalization of representative patients with Type 2 diabetes.


A total of 1296 patients from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study, Phase I, and 5159 de-identified age- and sex-matched control subjects without diabetes from the same urban area were studied. The patients' mean (sd) age was 64.0 (11.3) years and 48.6% of them were male. Their median (interquartile range) diabetes duration was 4.0 (1.0-9.0) years. The main outcome assessed was any tendon rupture requiring hospitalization in the Fremantle Diabetes Study subjects and the matched control subjects. Independent predictors of spontaneous ruptures in the patients from the Fremantle Diabetes Study were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling.


The incidence rate ratio for any tendon rupture requiring hospitalization in patients vs control subjects was 1.44 (95% CI 1.10-1.87; = 0.005). Independent predictors of spontaneous ruptures in patients were BMI [hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 1.002-1.10] for 1 kg/m2 increase; = 0.010] and alcohol consumption [hazard ratio 1.52 (95% CI 1.11-2.09) for √1 standard drink/day increase; = 0.010]. Adjustment of the incidence rate ratio for overall rupture requiring hospitalization for these variables using the BMI and alcohol consumption data from the contemporary Australian general population suggested it could be as high as 1.84.


There is a greater risk of tendon rupture requiring hospitalization in people with Type 2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption and adiposity are potentially modifiable risk factors of spontaneous ruptures in patients with diabetes.

  T. C. Skinner , D. G. Bruce , T. M. E. Davis and W. A. Davis


To determine whether the personality traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness are associated with self-care behaviours and glycaemia in Type 2 diabetes.


The Big Five Inventory personality traits Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness were determined along with a range of other variables in 1313 participants with Type 2 diabetes (mean age 65.8 ± 11.1 years; 52.9% men) undertaking their baseline assessment as part of the community-based longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II. Age- and sex-adjusted generalized linear modelling was used to determine whether personality was associated with BMI, smoking, self-monitoring of blood glucose and medication taking. Multivariable regression was used to investigate which traits were independently associated with these self-care behaviours and HbA1c.


Patients with higher conscientiousness were less likely to be obese or smoke, and more likely to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and take their medications (P ≤ 0.019), with similar independent associations in multivariate models (P ≤ 0.024). HbA1c was independently associated with younger age, indigenous ethnicity, higher BMI, longer diabetes duration, diabetes treatment, self-monitoring of blood glucose (negatively) and less medication taking (P ≤ 0.009), but no personality trait added to the model.


Although there was no independent association between personality traits and HbA1c, the relationship between high conscientiousness and low BMI and beneficial self-care behaviours suggests an indirect positive effect on glycaemia. Conscientiousness could be augmented by the use of impulse control training as part of diabetes management.

  T. M. E. Davis , J. Drinkwater and W. A. Davis


To determine the relative risk of pancreatitis in diabetes, and to establish whether diabetes-related as well as recognized risk factors contribute.


We studied 1426 participants [mean (sd) age 62.1 (13.3) years, 49.6% male, 90.9% Type 2 diabetes, median (interquartile range) diabetes duration 4.0 (1.010.0) years] from the community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I and 5663 matched residents without diabetes from the same geographical area. Pancreatitis hospitalizations between 1982 and 2010 were ascertained using validated data linkage. For Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants, chart review provided data on the likely causes of pancreatitis.


A total of 21 Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants (1.5%) were hospitalized for pancreatitis before study entry vs 29 (0.5%) of contemporaneous residents without diabetes. During a mean (sd) of 12.1 (5.4) years of follow-up from entry, 22 (1.6%) Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants were hospitalized for a first-ever episode of pancreatitis on 37 occasions (1.31/1000 person-years) compared with 58 (1.0%) residents without diabetes on 81 occasions during a mean (sd) 13.6 (4.8) years (0.75/1000 person-years). The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for first-ever pancreatitis hospitalization in Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants was 1.73 (1.062.83; P=0.029). Chart review of 17 of the 22 Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants (77%) with incident pancreatitis and available case notes revealed that four (24%) presented without objective evidence of pancreatitis, seven (41%) presented with cholelithiasis, three (18%) with excessive alcohol consumption, two (12%) as a complication of elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and one (6%) with hypertriglyceridaemia.


Consistent with previously published data, the risk of pancreatitis was higher in community-dwelling Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I participants but conventional precipitants accounted for confirmed cases. These data question whether diabetes-specific risk factors cause or contribute to pancreatitis.

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