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Articles by W. H Zhu
Total Records ( 2 ) for W. H Zhu
  W. H Zhu , L Yang , C. Q Jiang , L. Z Deng , T. H Lam , J. Y Zhang and S. S. C. Chan

Smoking cessation programs are well established in the West, but reports on smoking cessation clinics (SCCs) from China are lacking. On the basis of the Hong Kong experience and with strong support from Guangzhou Health Bureau, we established the first SCC in Guangzhou, China. The objective was to describe the characteristics of smokers, measure quit rates and examine predictors of successful quitting.


During 2006–08, 220 smokers received individual counseling following the five A's and five R's. No medications were used.


At baseline, the mean (SD) age was 40 (14) years. Most (96%) were males, married (73%), currently employed (75%), college educated or above (54%); 77% had previous quitting attempts. By 14 May 2008, 195 reached the 6 months follow-up period. Of them, 79% (151/195) were successfully followed up, and 46 had quit. By intention to treat, the 6-month 7-day point prevalence quit rate was 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18–30%]. Smokers with more confidence in quitting or were at action stage were more successful in quitting with adjusted odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.01–5.30) and 5.50 (95% CI 1.08–28) respectively.


A pilot-model clinic free of charge and with systemic data collection, follow-up and evaluation should be a starting point for smoking cessation program in low-income countries.

  A. C Aplin , W. H Zhu , E Fogel and R. F. Nicosia

This study was designed to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in the reabsorption of neovessels in collagen gel cultures of rat and mouse aortic rings. Aortic angiogenesis was associated with collagen lysis and production of the matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-2, MMP-9, and membrane-type MMP (MT1-MMP, or MMP-14). Vascular growth and regression were not affected by disruption of MMP-2 or MMP-9. In addition, no effect on vascular regression was observed by blocking plasmin, a protease implicated in the activation of MMPs, with -aminocaproic acid or by adding plasminogen, which caused a modest increase in vascular proliferation. Conversely, angiogenesis was blocked and vessels stabilized by inhibiting MT1-MMP with neutralizing antibodies, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, or TIMP-4. TIMP-1, which blocks MMP-2 and MMP-9 but is a poor inhibitor of MT1-MMP, had no antiangiogenic effect. However, TIMP-1 prolonged the survival of neovessels following angiogenesis. Vascular regression was accelerated in aortic cultures from TIMP-1- and TIMP-2-deficient mice. The vascular survival effect of anti-MT1-MMP antibodies and TIMPs with MT1-MMP inhibitory activity was associated with complete inhibition of collagen lysis. In contrast, TIMP-1 had no anticollagenolytic effect. These results indicate that MT1-MMP plays a critical role not only in angiogenesis but also in vascular regression and demonstrate that TIMPs with anti-MT1-MMP activity have opposite effects on angiogenic outcomes depending on the stage of the angiogenic process. This study also suggests the existence of a TIMP-1-mediated alternate pathway of vascular survival that is unrelated to MT1-MMP inhibitory activity.

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