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Articles by W Ye
Total Records ( 4 ) for W Ye
  X Gong , W Ye , H Zhou , X Ren , Z Li , W Zhou , J Wu , Y Gong , Q Ouyang , X Zhao and X. Zhang
 

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression may be induced during apoptosis in various cell types. Here, we used the C-terminal of AChE to screen the human fetal brain library and found that it interacted with Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM). This interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In HEK293T cells, RanBPM and AChE were heterogeneously expressed in the cisplatin-untreated cytoplasmic extracts and in the cisplatin-treated cytoplasmic or nuclear extracts. Our previous studies performed using morphologic methods have shown that AChE translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that RanBPM is an AChE-interacting protein that is translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus during apoptosis, similar to the translocation observed in case of AChE.

  W Ye and S. W. Blain
 

A major phenotype seen in neurodegenerative disorders is the selective loss of neurons due to apoptotic death and evidence suggests that inappropriate re-activation of cell cycle proteins in post-mitotic neurons may be responsible. To investigate whether reactivation of the G1 cell cycle proteins and S phase entry was linked with apoptosis, we examined homocysteine-induced neuronal cell death in a rat cortical neuron tissue culture system. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a physiological risk factor for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. We found that in response to homocysteine treatment, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 2 translocated to the nucleus, and p27 levels decreased. Both cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 2 regained catalytic activity, the G1 gatekeeper retinoblastoma protein was phosphorylated and DNA synthesis was detected, suggesting transit into S phase. Double-labelling immunofluorescence showed a 95% co-localization of anti-bromodeoxyuridine labelling with apoptotic markers, demonstrating that those cells that entered S phase eventually died. Neurons could be protected from homocysteine-induced death by methods that inhibited G1 phase progression, including down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 or 2 activity by small molecule inhibitors, or use of the c-Abl kinase inhibitor, GleevecTM, which blocked cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 nuclear translocation. However, blocking cell cycle progression post G1, using DNA replication inhibitors, did not prevent apoptosis, suggesting that death was not preventable post the G1-S phase checkpoint. While homocysteine treatment caused DNA damage and activated the DNA damage response, its mechanism of action was distinct from that of more traditional DNA damaging agents, such as camptothecin, as it was p53-independent. Likewise, inhibition of the DNA damage sensors, ataxia-telangiectasia mutant and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related proteins, did not rescue apoptosis and in fact exacerbated death, suggesting that the DNA damage response might normally function neuroprotectively to block S phase-dependent apoptosis induction. As cell cycle events appear to be maintained in vivo in affected neurons for weeks to years before apoptosis is observed, activation of the DNA damage response might be able to hold cell cycle-induced death in check.

  C. S Aung , W Ye , G Plowman , A. A Peters , G. R Monteith and S. J. Roberts Thomson
 

A remodeling of calcium homeostasis has been identified as a characterizing feature of some cancers. Possible consequences of this include alterations in many pivotal physiological responses including apoptosis, proliferation and gene transcription. An alteration in calcium homeostasis can occur via changes in the expression of proteins that transport calcium and examples of cancers where this is seen includes the prostate and breast. A specific isoform of the calcium efflux pump, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) 4, is significantly upregulated during differentiation of the HT-29 colon cancer cell line suggesting that it may also be altered in colon cancer. We now report that differentiated HT-29 colon cancer cells have pronounced plasma membrane PMCA4 localization, consistent with augmented calcium efflux. Assessment of PMCA4 transcription in human colon cancer samples suggests that PMCA4 is significantly (P < 0.000001) downregulated early in the progression of some colon cancers as these cells become less differentiated. Inhibition of PMCA4 using small interfering RNA did not induce cell death or augment sensitivity to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. Reversing the colon cancer remodeling of PMCA4 by overexpression reduced cellular proliferation (P < 0.01) and downregulated transcription of the calcium sensitive early response gene FOS. Our studies suggest that the remodeling of the calcium signal in colon cancer is associated with compromised calcium efflux at a level that promotes proliferative pathways while avoiding increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli.

  C Tian , J Tan , X Wu , W Ye , X Liu , D Li and H. Yang
 

To describe the variation in bacterioplankton diversity within a large hypertrophic freshwater lake, as well as changes in the diversity that occurred with time, PCR- (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) DGGE was utilized to study water samples collected from Lake Taihu in China. To accomplish this, water samples were collected from different locations and during different months. The trophic status of these sampling sites ranged from eutrophic to hypertrophic. Cluster and multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that the temporal transition in the diversity of the bacterioplankton occurred primarily in response to a cyanobacterial bloom, and that all samples could be divided into normal-bloom, peak-bloom and winter period groups. Spatial differences in the bacterial diversity were also detected among the three sampling sites, with diversity being found to be strongly correlated with the gradient of the trophic status of the three sampling sites. In addition, these temporal and spatial changes could be characterized by several specific DGGE bands. The results were further analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis, which revealed that the bacterioplankton diversity of Lake Taihu was primarily associated with temperature, pH, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved oxygen. Of these factors, TN and TP were only shown to be significant influencing factors at Wuxi, which had the highest trophic level.

 
 
 
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