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Articles by W Lee
Total Records ( 4 ) for W Lee
  J. Y Tang , A Wu , E Linos , N Parimi , W Lee , M Aszterbaum , M. M Asgari , D. R Bickers and E. H. Epstein

Objectives  To evaluate vitamin D status in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) who practice photoprotection because of their genetic predisposition to skin cancer and to determine risk factors for deficiency.

Design  Retrospective cohort study.

Setting  Academic medical centers.

Patients  Forty-one ambulatory patients with BCNS who participated in a 2-year chemoprevention clinical trial. Population-based controls (n = 360) were selected and matched by age, sex, Fitzpatrick skin type, and season/geography.

Main Outcome Measures  Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and vitamin D deficiency (defined as a 25[OH]D level of ≤20 ng/mL).

Results  Twenty-three patients with BCNS (56%) were vitamin D deficient. Patients with BCNS had mean 25(OH)D levels below those of the general population (–3 ng/mL; P = .02) and were 3 times more likely to be vitamin D deficient (56% vs 18%; P < .001). Levels of 25(OH)D were lower in patients who were overweight (–3.0 ng/mL; P = .04) and who had blood collected in the winter compared with the summer (–7.1 ng/mL; P < .001).

Conclusion  Patients with BCNS may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency, depending on their adherence to photoprotection practices.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00023621

  W Lee , W. M Westler , A Bahrami , H. R Eghbalnia and J. L. Markley

Summary: PINE-SPARKY supports the rapid, user-friendly and efficient visualization of probabilistic assignments of NMR chemical shifts to specific atoms in the covalent structure of a protein in the context of experimental NMR spectra. PINE-SPARKY is based on the very popular SPARKY package for visualizing multidimensional NMR spectra (T. D. Goddard and D. G. Kneller, SPARKY 3, University of California, San Francisco). PINE-SPARKY consists of a converter (PINE2SPARKY), which takes the output from an automated PINE-NMR analysis and transforms it into SPARKY input, plus a number of SPARKY extensions. Assignments and their probabilities obtained in the PINE-NMR step are visualized as labels in SPARKY's spectrum view. Three SPARKY extensions (PINE Assigner, PINE Graph Assigner, and Assign the Best by PINE) serve to manipulate the labels that signify the assignments and their probabilities. PINE Assigner lists all possible assignments for a peak selected in the dialog box and enables the user to choose among these. A window in PINE Graph Assigner shows all atoms in a selected residue along with all atoms in its adjacent residues; in addition, it displays a ranked list of PINE-derived connectivity assignments to any selected atom. Assign the Best-by-PINE allows the user to choose a probability threshold and to automatically accept as "fixed" all assignments above that threshold; following this operation, only the less certain assignments need to be examined visually. Once assignments are fixed, the output files generated by PINE-SPARKY can be used as input to PINE-NMR for further refinements.

  K. H Chang , W Lee , D. M Choo , C. S Lee and Y. Kim

In this research, using direct measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, the potential dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in computed tomography was evaluated. The patient dose was measured using an ionisation chamber in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom that had five measurement points at the centre and periphery. Simulations were performed using the MCNPX code. For both the bare and the bismuth-shielded phantom, the differences of dose values between experiment and simulation were within 9 %. The dose reductions due to the bismuth shielding were 1.2–55 % depending on the measurement points, X-ray tube voltage and the type of shielding. The amount of dose reduction was significant for the positions covered by the bismuth shielding (34 – 46 % for head and 41 – 55 % for body phantom on average) and negligible for other peripheral positions. The artefact on the reconstructed images were minimal when the distance between the shielding and the organs was >1 cm, and hence the shielding should be selectively located to protect critical organs such as the eye lens, thyroid and breast. The simulation results using the PMMA phantom was compared with those using a realistically voxelised phantom (KTMAN-2). For eye and breast, the simulation results using the PMMA and KTMAN-2 phantoms were similar with each other, while for thyroid the simulation results were different due to the discrepancy of locations and the sizes of the phantoms. The dose reductions achieved by bismuth and lead shielding were compared with each other and the results showed that the difference of the dose reductions achieved by the two materials was less than 2–3 %.

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