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Articles by W Fan
Total Records ( 5 ) for W Fan
  S Zhang , J Lu , X Zhao , W Wu , H Wang , Q Wu , X Chen , W Fan , H Chen , F Wang , Z Hu , L Jin , Q Wei , H Shen , W Huang and D. Lu

Checkpoint kinase (CHEK) 2, a tumor suppressor gene, plays an essential role in the DNA damage checkpoint response cascade. We first investigated two polymorphisms in the proximal promoter of the CHEK2 gene and evaluated their associations with the risk of lung cancer in a case–control study using 500 incident lung cancer cases and 517 cancer-free controls. We found that CHEK2 rs2236141 –48 G > A was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (P = 0.0018). Similar results were obtained in a follow-up replication study in 575 lung cancer patients and 589 controls (P = 0.042). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that individuals with the G allele had lower levels of CHEK2 transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and normal lung tissues. The –48 G->A variant eliminated a methylation site and thereby relieve the transcriptional repression of CHEK2. Therefore, this polymorphism affected downstream transcription through genetic and epigenetic modifications. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the major G allele significantly attenuated reporter gene expression when methylated. Electrophoretic Mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance revealed that the methylated G allele increased transcription factor accessibility. We used in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation to confirm that the relevant transcription factor was Sp1. Using lung tissue heterozygous for the G/A single-nucleotide polymorphism, we found that Sp1 acted as a repressor and had a stronger binding affinity for the G allele. These results support our hypothesis that the CHEK2 rs2236141 variant modifies lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population by affecting CHEK2 expression.

  W Wu , W Zhang , R Qiao , D Chen , H Wang , Y Wang , S Zhang , G Gao , A Gu , J Shen , J Qian , W Fan , L Jin , B Han and D. Lu

Purpose: Platinum agents cause DNA cross-linking and adducts. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) plays a key role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway of DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms of XPD may affect the capacity to remove the deleterious DNA lesions in normal tissues and lead to greater treatment-related toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the association of three polymorphisms of XPD at codons 156, 312, and 711, with the occurrence of grade 3 or 4 toxicity in advanced non–small cell lung cancer patients.

Experimental Design: We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to genotype the three polymorphisms in 209 stage III and IV non–small cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

Results: The variant homozygotes of XPD p.Arg156Arg (rs238406) polymorphism were associated with a significantly increased risk of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity (adjusted odds ratios, 3.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-7.78; P for trend = 0.009), and, more specifically, severe leukopenia toxicity (P for trend = 0.005). No statistically significant association was found for the three polymorphisms and grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal toxicity. Consistent with these results of single-locus analysis, both the haplotype and the diplotype analyses revealed a protective effect of the haplotype "CG" (in the order of p.Arg156Arg-p.Asp312Asn) on the risk of grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity.

Conclusions: This investigation, for the first time, provides suggestive evidence of an effect of XPD p.Arg156Arg polymorphism on severe toxicity variability among platinum-treated non–small cell lung cancer patients.

  J Wang , R Ramakrishnan , Z Tang , W Fan , A Kluge , A Dowlati , R. C Jones and P. C. Ma

Background: The EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b) oncogene homolog, avian)] gene is known to harbor genomic alterations in advanced lung cancer involving gene amplification and kinase mutations that predict the clinical response to EGFR-targeted inhibitors. Methods for detecting such molecular changes in lung cancer tumors are desirable.

Methods: We used a nanofluidic digital PCR array platform and 16 cell lines and 20 samples of genomic DNA from resected tumors (stages I–III) to quantify the relative numbers of copies of the EGFR gene and to detect mutated EGFR alleles in lung cancer. We assessed the relative number of EGFR gene copies by calculating the ratio of the number of EGFR molecules (measured with a 6-carboxyfluorescein–labeled ScorpionTM assay) to the number of molecules of the single-copy gene RPP30 (ribonuclease P/MRP 30kDa subunit) (measured with a 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine–labeled TaqManTM assay) in each panel. To assay for the EGFR L858R (exon 21) mutation and exon 19 in-frame deletions, we used the ARMSTM and Scorpion technologies in a DxS/Qiagen EGFR29 Mutation Test Kit for the digital PCR array.

Results: The digital array detected and quantified rare gefitinib/erlotinib-sensitizing EGFR mutations (0.02%–9.26% abundance) that were present in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of early-stage resectable lung tumors without an associated increase in gene copy number. Our results also demonstrated the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity for the clinically relevant EGFR mutated alleles in these early-stage lung tumors.

Conclusions: The digital PCR array platform allows characterization and quantification of oncogenes, such as EGFR, at the single-molecule level. Use of this nanofluidics platform may provide deeper insight into the specific roles of clinically relevant kinase mutations during different stages of lung tumor progression and may be useful in predicting the clinical response to EGFR-targeted inhibitors.

  M Lu , P Li , J Pferdekamper , W Fan , M Saberi , S Schenk and J. M. Olefsky

Recent findings denote an important contribution of macrophage inflammatory pathways in causing obesity-related insulin resistance. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is activated in proinflammatory macrophages and modestly elevated in insulin-responsive tissues. Although the benefits of systemic iNOS inhibition in insulin-resistant models have been demonstrated, the role of macrophage iNOS in metabolic disorders is not clear. In the current work, we used bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to generate mice with myeloid iNOS deficiency [iNOS BMT knockout (KO)]. Interestingly, disruption of iNOS in myeloid cells did not protect mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. When mice were treated with the iNOS inhibitor, N6-(1-Iminoethyl)-L-lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL), we observed a significant and comparable improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in both wild-type and iNOS BMT KO mice. We further demonstrated that absence of iNOS in primary macrophages did not affect acute TLR4 signaling pathways and had only a modest and mixed effect on inflammatory gene expression. With respect to TNF treatment, iNOS KO macrophages showed, if anything, a greater inflammatory response. In summary, we conclude that iNOS inhibition in tissues other than myeloid cells is responsible for the beneficial effects in obesity/insulin resistance.

  Y Zhong , Y Huang , T Zhang , C Ma , S Zhang , W Fan , H Chen , J Qian and D. Lu

O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is one of the rare proteins to directly remove alkylating agents in the human DNA direct reversal repair pathway. Its two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Leu84Phe and Ile143Val, had previously been identified to contribute to susceptibility of cancer. However, there are conflicting results in studies on the association of the two polymorphisms with cancer. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the paradox with a large collected sample (13 069 cancer patients and 20 290 controls). We found significant association between the T allele (84Phe) and cancer risk, under the recessive genetic model [P = 0.023, odds ratio (OR) = 1.251, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.031–1.517, Pheterogeneity = 0.270], TT versus CC comparison (P = 0.035, OR = 1.239, 95% CI 1.015–1.511, Pheterogeneity = 0.225) and TT versus CT comparison (P = 0.007, OR = 1.292, 95% CI 1.071–1.559, Pheterogeneity = 0.374), using the random-effect model. In the ethnicity subgroup analysis, a significant association with cancer among Caucasians was found under the recessive genetic model, homozygote comparison and TT versus TC comparison. In the tumour sites subgroup analysis, only the protective effects of Leu84Phe polymorphism were found in colorectal cancer, under CT versus CC comparison. No significant association between the G allele of Ile143Val and cancer risk was found. The G allele showed an increased lung cancer risk under the dominant genetic model and AG versus AA comparison in all Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium subjects, only when the fixed-effect model was used. However, it was insignificant in the random-effect model.

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