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Articles by W Du
Total Records ( 2 ) for W Du
  E. R Viscusi , T. J Gan , J. B Leslie , J. F Foss , M. D Talon , W Du and G. Owens
 

Postoperative ileus (POI), a transient cessation of coordinated bowel function after surgery, is an important health care problem. The etiology of POI is multifactorial and related to both the surgical and anesthetic pathways chosen. Opioids used to manage surgical pain can exacerbate POI, delaying gastrointestinal (GI) recovery. Peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR) antagonists are designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of opioids on GI motility. This new class is investigational for POI management with the goal of accelerating the recovery of upper and lower GI tract function after bowel resection. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms by which POI occurs and the role of opioids and opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system, discuss the mechanism of action of PAM-OR antagonists, and review clinical pharmacology and Phase II/III POI trial results of methylnaltrexone and alvimopan. Finally, the role of anesthesiologists in managing POI in the context of a multimodal approach is discussed.

  W Du , Y Zhou , S Pike and Q. Pang
 

An elevated level of nucleophosmin (NPM) is often found in actively proliferative cells including human tumors. To identify the regulatory role for NPM phosphorylation in proliferation and cell cycle control, a series of mutants targeting the consensus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation sites was created to mimic or abrogate either single-site or multi-site phosphorylation. Simultaneous inactivation of two CDK phosphorylation sites at Ser10 and Ser70 (NPM-AA) induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, phosphorylation of Cdk1 at Tyr15 (Cdc2Tyr15) and increased cytoplasmic accumulation of Cdc25C. Strikingly, stress-induced Cdk1Tyr15 and Cdc25C sequestration was suppressed by expression of a phosphomimetic NPM mutant created on the same CDK sites (S10E/S70E, NPM-EE). Further analysis revealed that phosphorylation of NPM at both Ser10 and Ser70 was required for proper interaction between Cdk1 and Cdc25C. Moreover, NPM-EE directly bound to Cdc25C and prevented phosphorylation of Cdc25C at Ser216 during mitosis. Finally, NPM-EE overrided stress-induced G2/M arrest and increased leukemia blasts in a NOD/SCID xenograft model. Thus, these findings reveal a novel function of NPM on regulation of cell cycle progression, in which phosphorylation of NPM controls cell cycle progression at G2/M transition through modulation of Cdk1 and Cdc25C activities.

 
 
 
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