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Articles by W Davis
Total Records ( 2 ) for W Davis
  J. Y Choi , S. R James , P. A Link , S. E McCann , C. C Hong , W Davis , M. K Nesline , C. B Ambrosone and A. R. Karpf

Background: Global DNA hypomethylation may result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation, and as a surrogate of systemic methylation activity, may be associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: Samples and data were obtained from women with incident early-stage breast cancer (I–IIIa) and women who were cancer free, frequency matched on age and race. In preliminary analyses, genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA was determined by measuring 5-methyldeoxycytosine (5-mdC), as well as methylation analysis of the LINE-1-repetitive DNA element. Further analyses used only 5-mdC levels. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of breast cancer in relation to amounts of methylation. Results: In a subset of samples tested (n = 37), 5-mdC level was not correlated with LINE-1 methylation. 5-mdC level in leukocyte DNA was significantly lower in breast cancer cases than healthy controls (P = 0.001), but no significant case–control differences were observed with LINE-1 methylation (P = 0.176). In the entire data set, we noted significant differences in 5-mdC levels in leukocytes between cases (n = 176) and controls (n = 173); P value < 0.001. Compared with women in the highest 5-mdC tertile (T3), women in the second (T2; OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.84–2.65) and lowest tertile (T1; OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.65–4.94) had higher risk of breast cancer (P for trend ≤0.001). Among controls only and cases and controls combined, only alcohol intake was found to be inversely associated with methylation levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that leukocyte DNA hypomethylation is independently associated with development of breast cancer.

  B Keeshan , C Avener , A Abramson , J Brennan , E Hill , J MacLean , K Mebust , S Maruti , J Carney , W Davis and A. Sumner

The pernicious effects of lead on child health are well documented. The Vermont Department of Health (VDH) recommends screening all 12- and 24-month-old children for elevated blood lead levels (BLL). In 2006, only 41.4% of 24-month-old Vermont children were screened. To identify barriers preventing pediatricians from performing blood lead screening, a survey was distributed to Vermont primary care pediatricians—divided in higher and lower screening groups. Vermont pediatricians were more likely to be lower screeners if they reported negative health outcomes began at BLL >" xbd="641" xhg="618" ybd="1456" yhg="1421"/> 10 µg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-11.99), practiced in Chittenden County (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.14-9.78), or disagreed with the VDH’s recommendation (OR = 4.90, 95% CI = 1.66-15.50). Adjusted analysis indicated the most significant determinants of lower screening rates were male gender, a perceived dangerous BLL as >10 µg/dL and low self-reported Medicaid population. The VDH may have an opportunity to increase BLL screening emphasizing the significant health risks associated with BLL ≤ 10 µg/dL.

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