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Articles by W Cao
Total Records ( 10 ) for W Cao
  W Cao , A. A Tsiatis and M. Davidian
 

Considerable recent interest has focused on doubly robust estimators for a population mean response in the presence of incomplete data, which involve models for both the propensity score and the regression of outcome on covariates. The usual doubly robust estimator may yield severely biased inferences if neither of these models is correctly specified and can exhibit nonnegligible bias if the estimated propensity score is close to zero for some observations. We propose alternative doubly robust estimators that achieve comparable or improved performance relative to existing methods, even with some estimated propensity scores close to zero.

  W Cao , C Xu , G Lou , J Jiang , S Zhao , M Geng , W Xi , H Li and Y. Jin
  Objective

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin as a first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced esophageal cancer.

Methods

Patients with advanced esophageal cancer received 175 mg/m2 of paclitaxel over a 3 h infusion, followed by nedaplatin 80 mg/m2 in a 1 h infusion on day 1 every 3 weeks until the documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or patient's refusal.

Results

Between March 2005 and December 2007, 48 patients entered in the study. Forty-six (95.8%) of the 48 patients were assessable for response. The overall response rate was 41.7% (95% CI, 27.8–55.7%) with 2 complete responses and 18 partial responses. The median follow-up period was 20.5 months (range, 12.5–27.2 months). The median overall time to progression and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (95% CI, 4.8–7.4 months) and 11.5 months (95% CI, 9.1–13.9 months), respectively. The estimate of OS at 12 and 24 months was 43.8% (95% CI, 29.7–77.8%) and 10.4% (95% CI, 1.8–19.1%), respectively. Most patients experienced anemia, during their course of therapy with 6 (13.0%) patients for grade 3/4 anemia, and grade 1 or 2 anemia was detected in 23 (50%) patients. Grade 3 leucopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were documented in 8 (17.4%), 9 (17.4%) and 2 (4.3%) patients, respectively. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were detected in 3 (6.5%) and 2 (4.3%) patients, respectively. Two patients (4.3%) were hospitalized because of treatment-related complications. The treatment was well tolerated and no toxic death occurred.

Conclusions

Combination of paclitaxel and nedaplatin is a tolerated treatment modality with promising activity in previously untreated advanced esophageal cancer.

  M. D Mattaliano , C Huard , W Cao , A. A Hill , W Zhong , R. V Martinez , D. C Harnish , J. E Paulsen and H. H. Shih
 

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) has been implicated as a proatherogenic factor with a pathological role in the induction of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells bind and uptake OxLDL primarily through the scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized-low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is believed to mediate critical effects of OxLDL in endothelial cells. To examine the biological events following LOX-1 activation by OxLDL, we used cDNA microarray analysis to globally analyze gene expression changes induced by OxLDL treatment of human aortic endothelial cell line (HAECT) cells overexpressing LOX-1. Consistent with reported functions of OxLDL, in control HAECT cells, OxLDL elicited gene changes in the oxidative stress pathway and other signaling pathways related to OxLDL. With OxLDL treatment, LOX-1-dependent gene expression changes associated with inflammation, cell adhesion, and signal transduction were observed. The transcripts of a number of cytokines and chemokines were induced, which included interleukin-8, CXCL2, CXCL3, and colony-stimulating factor-3. The secretion of these cytokines was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. In addition, our data revealed a novel link between LOX-1 and a number of genes, including Delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor repeat containing, stanniocalcin-1, cAMP response element modulator, and dual specificity phosphatase 1. Promoter analysis on the genes that changed as a result of LOX-1 activation by OxLDL allowed us to identify early growth response 1 and cAMP response element-binding protein as potential novel transcription factors that function downstream of LOX-1. Our study has enabled us to elucidate the gene expression changes following OxLDL activation of LOX-1 in endothelial cells and discover novel downstream targets for LOX-1.

  H Li , G Liu , J Yu , W Cao , V. G Lobo and J. Xie
 

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is often controlled by cell signals, for example, those activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV). We have shown that CaMKIV regulates alternative splicing through short CA repeats and hnRNP L. Here we use a splicing reporter that shows PKA/CaMKIV promotion of exon inclusion to select from exons containing random 13-nt sequences for RNA elements responsive to the kinases in cultured cells. This selection not only identified both PKA- and CaMKIV-responsive elements that are similar to the CaMKIV-responsive RNA element 1 (CaRRE1) or CA repeats, but also A-rich elements not previously known to respond to these kinases. Consistently, hnRNP L is identified as a factor binding the CA-rich elements. Analyses of the motifs in the highly responsive elements indicate that they are indeed critical for the kinase effect and are enriched in alternative exons. Interestingly, a CAAAAAA motif is sufficient for the PKA/CaMKIV-regulated splicing of the exon 16 of the CaMK kinase β1 (CaMKK2) transcripts, implying a role of this motif in signaling cross-talk or feedback regulation between these kinases through alternative splicing. Therefore, these experiments identified a group of RNA elements responsive to PKA and CaMKIV from in vivo selection. This also provides an approach for selecting RNA elements similarly responsive to other cell signals controlling alternative splicing.

  W Cao , L Bover , M Cho , X Wen , S Hanabuchi , M Bao , D. B Rosen , Y. H Wang , J. L Shaw , Q Du , C Li , N Arai , Z Yao , L. L Lanier and Y. J. Liu
 

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce copious type I interferon (IFN) upon sensing nucleic acids through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9. Uncontrolled pDC activation and IFN production are implicated in lymphopenia and autoimmune diseases; therefore, a mechanism controlling pDC IFN production is essential. Human pDCs specifically express an orphan receptor, immunoglobulin-like transcript 7 (ILT7). Here, we discovered an ILT7 ligand expressed by human cell lines and identified it as bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2; CD317). BST2 directly binds to purified ILT7 protein, initiates signaling via the ILT7–FcRI complex, and strongly inhibits production of IFN and proinflammatory cytokines by pDCs. Readily induced by IFN and other proinflammatory cytokines, BST2 may modulate the human pDC’s IFN responses through ILT7 in a negative feedback fashion.

 
 
 
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