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Articles by W Cai
Total Records ( 4 ) for W Cai
  Z Zhao , C Zhao , X. H Zhang , F Zheng , W Cai , H Vlassara and Z. A. Ma

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in diabetic complications. However, their role in β-cell dysfunction is less clear. In this study we examined the effects of AGEs on islet function in mice and in isolated islets. AGE-BSA or BSA was administered ip to normal mice twice a day for 2 wk. We showed that AGE-BSA-treated mice exhibited significantly higher glucose levels and lower insulin levels in response to glucose challenge than did BSA-treated mice, although there were no significant differences in insulin sensitivity and islet morphology between two groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by islets of the AGE-BSA-treated mice or AGE-BSA-treated normal islets was significantly lower than that by islets isolated from the BSA-treated mice or BSA-treated normal islets. Furthermore, AGE treatment of islet β-cells inhibited ATP production, and glimepiride, a sulfonylurea derivative, restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Further investigation indicated that AGEs inhibited cytochrome c oxidase activity by inducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Blocking the formation of nitric oxide with an iNOS selective inhibitor aminoguanidine reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs on ATP production and insulin secretion. We conclude that AGEs inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and ATP production, leading to the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through iNOS-dependent nitric oxide production.

  S Lkhagvadorj , L Qu , W Cai , O. P Couture , C. R Barb , G. J Hausman , D Nettleton , L. L Anderson , J. C. M Dekkers and C. K. Tuggle

Transcriptional profiling coupled with blood metabolite analyses were used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting treatment or to a D298N missense mutation in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene. Gilts (12 homozygous for D298 and 12 homozygous for N298) were either fed ad libitum or fasted for 3 days. Fasting decreased body weight, backfat, and serum urea concentration and increased serum nonesterified fatty acid. In response to fasting, 7,029 genes in fat and 1,831 genes in liver were differentially expressed (DE). MC4R genotype did not significantly affect gene expression, body weight, backfat depth, or any measured serum metabolite concentration. Pathway analyses of fasting-induced DE genes indicated that lipid and steroid synthesis was downregulated in both liver and fat. Fasting increased expression of genes involved in glucose sparing pathways, such as oxidation of amino acids and fatty acids in liver, and in extracellular matrix pathways, such as cell adhesion and adherens junction in fat. Additionally, we identified DE transcription factors (TF) that regulate many DE genes. This confirms the involvement of TF, such as PPARG, SREBF1, and CEBPA, which are known to regulate the fasting response, and implicates additional TF, such as ESR1. Interestingly, ESR1 controls several fasting induced genes in fat that are involved in cell matrix morphogenesis. Our findings indicate a transcriptional response to fasting in two key metabolic tissues of pigs, which was corroborated by changes in blood metabolites, and the involvement of novel putative transcriptional regulators in the immediate adaptive response to fasting.

  C. R Barb , G. J Hausman , R Rekaya , C. A Lents , S Lkhagvadorj , L Qu , W Cai , O. P Couture , L. L Anderson , J. C. M Dekkers and C. K. Tuggle

Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist [Nle4, d-Phe7]--melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH) in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12), or heterozygous (n = 12). Food intake (FI) was measured at 12 and 24 h after treatment. All pigs were killed at 24 h after treatment, and hypothalamus, liver, and back-fat tissue was collected. NDP-MSH suppressed (P < 0.004) FI at 12 and 24 h in all animals after treatment. In response to NDP-MSH, 278 genes in hypothalamus (q ≤ 0.07, P ≤ 0.001), 249 genes in liver (q ≤ 0.07, P ≤ 0.001), and 5,066 genes in fat (q ≤ 0.07, P ≤ 0.015) were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis of NDP-MSH-induced differentially expressed genes indicated that genes involved in cell communication, nucleotide metabolism, and signal transduction were prominently downregulated in the hypothalamus. In both liver and adipose tissue, energy-intensive biosynthetic and catabolic processes were downregulated in response to NDP-MSH. This included genes encoding for biosynthetic pathways such as steroid and lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid synthesis. Genes involved in direct energy-generating processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport, and ATP synthesis, were upregulated, whereas TCA-associated genes were prominently downregulated in NDP-MSH-treated pigs. Our data also indicate a metabolic switch toward energy conservation since genes involved in energy-intensive biosynthetic and catabolic processes were downregulated in NDP-MSH-treated pigs.

  W Cai , M Torreggiani , L Zhu , X Chen , J. C He , G. E Striker and H. Vlassara

Advanced glycated end-product receptor 1 (AGER1) protects against vascular disease promoted by oxidants, such as advanced glycated end products (AGEs), via inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the specific AGEs, sources, and pathways involved remain undefined. The mechanism of cellular NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent ROS generation by defined AGEs, N-carboxymethyl-lysine- and methylglyoxal (MG)-modified BSA, was assessed in AGER1 overexpressing (AGER1+ EC) or knockdown (sh-mRNA-AGER1+ EC) human aortic endothelial (EC) and ECV304 cells, and aortic segments from old (18 mo) C57BL6-F2 mice, propagated on low-AGE diet (LAGE), or LAGE supplemented with MG (LAGE+MG). Wild-type EC and sh-mRNA-AGER1+ EC, but not AGER1+ EC, had high NOX p47phox and gp91phox activity, superoxide anions, and NF-B p65 nuclear translocation in response to MG and N-carboxymethyl-lysine. These events involved epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent PKC- redox-sensitive Tyr-311 and Tyr-332 phosphorylation and were suppressed in AGER1+ ECs and enhanced in sh-mRNA-AGER1+ ECs. Aortic ROS, PKC- Tyr-311, and Tyr-332 phosphorylation, NOX expression, and nuclear p65 in older LAGE+MG mice were significantly increased above that in age-matched LAGE mice, which had higher levels of AGER1. In conclusion, circulating AGEs induce NADPH-dependent ROS generation in vascular aging in both in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, AGER1 provides protection against AGE-induced ROS generation via NADPH.

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