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Articles by Virendra Kumar
Total Records ( 2 ) for Virendra Kumar
  Tarun Kumar Sachan , Virendra Kumar , ShoorVir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Sujata Jayaraman , Mukesh Sikarwar , Sunil Dixit and Kuldeep Dhama
  Mycobacterial biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface, which constitutes a protected mode of growth that allows survival in hostile environment. Biofilms can be defined as communities of mycobacteria attached to a surface. It is clear that microorganisms undergo profound changes during their transition from planktonic (free-swimming) organisms to cells that are part of a complex, surface-attached community. These changes are reflected in the new phenotypic characteristics developed by biofilm mycobacteria and occur in response to a variety of environmental signals. The biofilm-forming microorganisms have been shown to elicit specific mechanisms for initial attachment to a surface, formation of micro colony leading to development of three-dimensional structure of mature biofilm. They differ from their free-living counterparts in their growth rate, composition and increased resistance to biocides, antibiotics and antibodies by virtue of up regulation and/or down regulation of approximately 40% of their genes. This makes them highly difficult to eradicate with therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents. A greater understanding of mechanism of their formation and survival under sessile environments may help in devising control strategies.
  Rakesh Kumar , Samir Kumar Biswas , Virendra Kumar , Kishan Lal , Upesh Kumar and Vallabhaneni Tilak Chowdary
  Background and Objective: Induced resistance is an innovative strategy to overcome production problems of the most serious and destructive late blight [Phytophthora infestans] (P. infestans) diseases in potato, causes great Irish famine in 1845. Biochemical changes are associated with induced resistance. Therefore, the study was undertaken to find out the induction of defense enzymes using inorganic chemicals as inducer in induced resistance against late blight of potato. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted at Wire house complex at Department of Plant Pathology during 2012-2015 using inorganic chemicals viz. salicylic acid, indole acetic acid, di-potassium hydrogen orthophosphate, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, ferric chloride and metalaxyl as inducers in induced resistance against the disease. The activity of defense enzymes like peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in potato plants after treatment with different inorganic chemical as inducers followed by inoculation of pathogen was measured at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days separately according to the standard procedure developed by various scientists. Correlation coefficients (r) between defense enzymes and disease severity were calculated by standard statistical calculation. Results: All the treatments were able to reduce the disease severity with the lowest in salicylic acid treated plant, representing, the value 12.55-20.72% against 46.35-65.35% in case of control. Biochemical analysis revealed that increased content of defense enzymes like POD, PPO and PAL were found in all treated plants but the maximum in salicylic acid treated leaves at different days of interval. Correlation coefficient analysis also revealed that there was negative correlation r = (-0.886, -0.986 and -0.985),(-0.936, -0.985 and -0.986),(-0.945, -0.872 and -0.972) between disease severity and defense enzymes POD, PPO and PAL respectively at 2, 6 and 10 days of treatments. Conclusion: Pre-foliar sprayed with inorganic chemicals stimulate to synthesize the increase content of peroxidase, PPO and PAL which might be provided protection of potato plants against P. infestans. Salicylic acid can be used as inducers in induced resistance in potato against late blight.
 
 
 
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