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Articles by V.P. Singh
Total Records ( 16 ) for V.P. Singh
  V.P. Singh and N. Sachan
  Milk is recognised as complete food for human beings because it contains most of the essential nutrients. Besides, traditional components now it is proved that milk is also a good source of biopeptides and other bioactive components which are necessary for body maintenance and to fight against several disease conditions. Minerals present in milk are good source of bone health and body cells functioning. Various vitamins such as vitamin-A, D, B12 and others are a vital source for the body coat and physiological functions of the human body. The conjugated linoleic acid naturally present in milk is a good fat for human health. Various components of milk are also necessary for thyroid function, protection against metabolic disorders, gout and other similar malfunctioning. Besides, several other components the prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotic, biopeptides and bioactive components along with unique source of protein (casein), carbohydrate (lactose) etc. may serves as live saving drugs in emergency cases of the human body.
  V.P. Singh and N. Sachan
  Vitamin-B12 is a vital vitamin for human health because the deficiency of this vitamin leads to the conditions like anaemia, various neurological disorders such as numbness, pins and needles sensations, a burning feeling in the feet, shaking, muscle fatigue, sleep disorders, memory loss, irrational anger, impaired mental function and Alzheimer’s. Besides these effects its deficiency also exerts some psychological conditions such as dementia, depression, psychosis and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. To overcome these problems daily intake of animal based food is recommended. In case of its deficiency signs some additional or supportive drugs containing vitamin-B12 either in form of pills and in emergency cases injections may be taken.
  V.P. Singh , Vikas Pathak and K. Verma Akhilesh
  The modern desire of the health conscious people is functional food. Eggs are considered as complete food with most of the nutrients required for well beings. But the worries are related to the cholesterol content found in the egg. In addition, to the nutrients already available in the egg if we can alter or incorporate certain health beneficiary nutrients then these eggs will be the choice of food for health conscious peoples and it can also reduces the chances of occurrence of certain diseases. By the modification or enrichment in eggs we can obtain the eggs like low cholesterol eggs, omega-3 enriched eggs, vitamin enriched eggs, mineral enriched eggs, pigment enriched eggs and many more types of the modified or enriched eggs can easily be obtained for the specific proposes. The manuscript also contains some pros and cones of these eggs related to organoleptic qualities and its market related issues.
  V.P. Singh , V. Pathak and Akhilesh K. Verma
  Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus. These foods are also able to produce certain biogenic amines; the most commonly found biogenic amines in the meat and meat products are tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and also histamine. The formation of such bioamines further enhances the functional properties of the foods besides addition in nutrients.
  Akhilesh K. Verma , V.P. Singh and Pathak Vikas
  In the faster pace of life and more consciousness of consumers about food safety and security, nanotechnology may be the important tool to augment the livestock products to fulfil the future demand. By the exploitation of the use of nanoparticles we can produce meat, milk and poultry products in much faster pace with high safety. Nanotechnology may serve the purpose of vegetarians who are willing to eat high proteinous food without killing the animals in form of in-vitro meat, cultured meat or laboratory grown meat. The nutritional quality along with quantity to fulfil the stomach of hungry peoples in the coming year’s nanotechnology may be the modern weapon. The transportability of livestock products with freshness is a great concern which may be meet out by the use of nanoparticles in form of flexible pouches, laminates and eatable coatings. Besides, this technology is having enormous scope in the livestock based industry.
  T.R. Arun , R. Rana , P. Singh , P. Choudhuri , V.P. Singh , P. Thomas , V. Rekha , K. Nehra , J. Usharani and K. Dhama
  A gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay was developed for rapid serodiagnosis of contagious agalactia, an economically important mycoplasmal disease of small ruminants. Sonicated antigen of Mycoplasma agalactiae was used as the test reagent that was immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane along with the control line of goat IgG. The detection reagent, gold nanoparticle conjugated with anti-goat antibody was dried on the conjugate pad. During the assay, specific antibodies against M. agalactiae in the test serum that combined with the detection reagent were captured in the test line and detected visually by the development of a red line on nitrocellulose membrane. The gold conjugate captured in control line produced a red line regardless of the presence of specific antibodies that served as a procedural control. Serum samples collected from an experimentally infected goat were tested with the lateral flow assay and antibodies were detected from 9th day of infection and the assay was also evaluated using 100 goat sera samples. This is the first report regarding development of a gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay for rapid diagnosis of contagious agalactia in goats. This study suggests that current lateral flow assay can be used as a user friendly diagnostic in laboratories lacking specialized equipments as well as for point of care diagnosis of contagious agalactia.
  G.R. Bansal , V.P. Singh and N. Sachan
  Probiotic feeding leads to the development of stable type of micro flora which helps the bird to resist infections noticeably in the intestinal tract and helps in several ways. With this objective present study was under taken to evaluate the effect of probiotic on performance of commercial broiler chicks. In study two groups one without probiotic (P0) and another with Probiotic (P) supplementation were considered for the study. The experiment consisted of two replicates for probiotic groups. The performance of broiler was evaluated in terms of growth, feed efficiency and percent mortality at 6th week of age. Data were analyzed on survivor and equal number of bird’s per subclass basis. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between replicates were not significant for the different traits under study as such all subsequent analysis was performed on combined sex basis. Inclusion of probiotic in diet also affected highly significantly both the sexes for this age of body weight. Broiler group fed with, diet P (with Probiotic) were significantly heavier than the group fed with, diet P0 (without Probiotic). The inclusion of probiotics showed increased feed efficiency, better quality of broiler meat. The probiotic exerted highly significant effect on 2nd, 3rd and 5th weekly feed efficiency and also on overall feed efficiency. Overall performance of the broilers feded with the diet containing probiotics was found better in terms of feed efficiency, growth and meat quality. It might be due to suppressive effect of probiotic on unwanted organism and promotion of health status of the broilers.
  S. Srivastava , V.P. Singh , R. Kumar , M. Srivastava , A. Sinha and S. Simon
  The aim of the present study was to check the efficacy of carbendazim 50% WP, antagonists and botanicals against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii associated with rhizosphere soil of guava. Guava (Psidium guajava L.) the apple of tropics is one of the most important fruit in India. The fruit of guava is a good source of vitamin C and pectin. Guava wilt is a serious disease and it recognized as a main causal organism. Isolation and identification of pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii) was carried out in the Department of Plant Protection, Allahabad Agricultural institute Deemed University, Allahabad. The radial growth of Fusarium cxysporum f. sp. psidii was fully inhibited at high concentrations like 100, 1000 and 10,000 ppm of cardendazim 50% WP whereas antagonists like Trichoderma spp. Produced maximum inhibition zone (61.91%) followed by Aspergillus niger (61.12%). The radial growth of Fusarium cxysporum f. sp. psidii was also significantly less in neem leaf extract treatment followed by Lantana leaf extract. Management of guava wilt by chemical (systemic fungicide) can be spectacular but this is relatively short-term measure. Eco-friendly management practices, i.e., use of bio-control agents and botanicals was studied in vitro which gave better results and these practices can be economical, long lasting and free from residual side effects.
  G.R. Bansal , V.P. Singh and N. Sachan
  Rapid growth rate in the poultry industry poses the problem of huge production of poultry excreta. Hence, utilization of this vast organic waste might be a critical issue in near future. One of the potential uses of poultry excreta could be its utilization as a source of protein in poultry ration. With this objective the study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Dried Poultry Excreta (DPE) supplementation on the performance of broilers, in terms of growth, conformation traits and carcass characteristics. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between replicates were none significant for the different traits. In the study, maximum shank length was found in the feed containing 5% DPE in both male and female. The keel bone length was increased when DPE increased in diet. The breast angle measurements of males were higher than the females. The males had the widest breast angle with 5% DPE level at 4th week of age and 10% DPE level at 6th week of age. The% leg yield on combined sex basis ranged from 31.7 to 32.3%, breast yield 26.3 to 26.6%, back with neck yield 24.4 to 25.0% and wing yield 16.9 to 17.3% within three DPE levels of diet. All DPE levels of the study in broilers diet can be implemented and was very well accepted but for better results it is recommended that DPE should be replaced in broilers diet between 5 to 10%.
  V.P. Singh and N. Sachan
  Conjugated linoleic acid is a good fat which is naturally found in many foods like milk and meat of the ruminants particularly cows, sheep and goats. It is a potent cancer fighter along with several other positive health benefits. It can be transformed from lenoleic acid by the rumen bacteria. It is simply an excretory metabolites or metabolic intermediates of rumen bacteria and normally produced in ruminants as for symbiotic purposes thus it promotes health and longevity of the animals. CLA is also capable to prevent obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus etc. The only need is to exploit the possibilities for its beneficial effects and exploration of its natural sources as a food. Among all organic milk is a richest food sources and may be the good alternative in this concerned. However, its detection, monitoring and quality control are the prime considerations.
  V.P. Singh , N. Sachan and Akhilesh K. Verma
  The aim of this theme is to highlight the important points related to melatonin. It is a hormone secreted in pineal glands and helps in the induction of sleep in human beings. Melatonin is a naturally occurring compound in animals, plants and microbes. It is responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythms for several biological functions. It is sensitive to the light and its concentration in the milk varies with the intensity of light. The basic functions of this hormone include antioxidant property, in correction of sleeping disorders, in alleviation of jet lag and in prevention of cancers. Besides these major functions, it also has some associated functions like protection of skin damage from ultraviolet light. Generally, <0.3 mg melatonin is required per day for human beings for usual induction of sleep and relaxation.
  V.P. Singh and Sachan Neelam
  Meat species specification is an area which needs specialized attention in the food quality management system. It is a vital field to ensure the food safety to the consumers and it conserves the laws related to meat and meat products. The adulteration of inferior quality meat into superior quality meat is a common practice all over the world. Using meat species specification techniques we can easily solve the problems of vetro-legal or forensic cases particularly related to Prevention of Cow Slaughter Act, Prevention of Food Adulteration Act in India and related laws existing worldwide. Various methods are available right from physical, chemical, anatomical, histological and biological to sophisticated molecular techniques. All these methods have pros and cons so the knowledge of all these techniques is of immense value for the persons having some stakes in this specialized field. If the meat is in carcass form, it can be easily identified with the physical, chemical, anatomical and histological methods but the reproducibility and quantitative identification is not possible. In biological methods we use the simple method of antigen-antibody reaction for visual identification. In electrophoresis, the migration of the protein moiety according to their molecular weight under the influence of electric field principle is applied. The band patterns produced in this technique is them visualized for result interpretation. In recent molecular techniques DNA and RNA amplification is done to produce the fingerprints as per the characteristics of an identical genetic material for a particular meat species. Now the development of PCR technique makes easy to identify the meat species even from the cooked and spoiled meat in which protein is easily destroyed. Real time PCR is the revolution in this field in which we can identify and monitor the product during its amplification. Although no single technique is sufficient for differentiation of all types of meat species and meat products.
  V. Pathak , V.P. Singh and Yadav Sanjay
  Ultrasound is a modern tool that can be utilized as non-destructive means for carcass evaluation and meat processing. It may also serve the purpose of value and quality-based marketing of live animals as well as the carcass and meat products at global level. Ultrasounds are the waves which can travel more quickly through muscle tissues than fat tissues. Measuring the velocity with which a sound wave passes from a transmitter to a receiver through a meat sample gives an indication of composition. Accuracy of prediction of carcass composition on live animals could be improved by the addition of ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements. By this way subcutaneous fat thickness in live animals could be accurately measured over the rib, lumbar and rump and that longissimus muscle area. Meat is inspected ultrasonically to determine fat-to-lean ratio and to obtain a three-dimensional computer image of the interior of the carcass showing the location, shape and nature of the various pixels of different materials (fat, lean, bone, abscesses or other tissues) in the carcass. On that basis grading of the carcasses can be easily done. Low-intensity ultrasound is a non-destructive technique that provides information about physicochemical properties like composition, structure, physical state and flow rate. High-intensity ultrasound is used to alter physical or chemical properties of foods, for example to generate emulsions, disrupt cells, promote chemical reactions, inhibit enzymes, tenderize meat and modify crystallization processes. Ultimately, ultrasound is a good tool for assessment of carcass characteristics in live animals, non-destructive method in quality evaluation of carcass and different meat product. It may also be the important means for marketability of the animal products through quality assurance.
  V. Nourani , V.P. Singh , M.T. Alami and H. Delafroz
  In this research, a geomorphological hydrologic model is developed and analyzed which is based on distributed flow routing and linear reservoirs cascade. In this model, the sub-basins output hydrographs have been calculated by Nash’s black box model, considering the geomorphological properties of the sub-basins; then the obtained hydrographs have been routed through the main channel using the non-linear kinematics wave model. The two most important characteristics of the model are: (a) it explicitly includes the watershed morphology in the formulation and (b) it depends on only one uncertain parameter which must be calibrated. The result of the model has been compared with Nash’s black box model and another gemorphological model i.e., SCS, for Ammameh watershed in central Iran. Combination of a non-linear distributed routing model (i.e., kinematics wave) and a linear lumped rainfall-runoff model (i.e., Nash’s model) causes the proposed model to be a proper runoff routing model.
  Amit Kumar , N.C. Srivastava and V.P. Singh
  Contagious agalactia is an endemic disease in most of the parts of the world with the classical etiology of M. agalactiae which accounts for 90% outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats. The disease is responsible for high economic losses due to loss in milk yield and kids/lambs because of abortions, neonatal deaths and loss of animals. It has been reported from various parts of the country including India. However, till date no specific diagnostic is available in India due to cross reactivity of mycoplasma antigens. The conventional methods of diagnosis are cumbersome and lack specificity and sensitivity. Keeping this in mind the present study was undertaken with the objective to conduct the antigenic analysis of Indian isolates of M. agalactiae by separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE and estimating their immunogenicity and diagnostic potential. SDS-PAGE revealed 24 polypeptides in Whole Cell Antigens (WCA) and Sonicated Supernatant Antigens (SSA) of both the isolates, respectively in the range of 20.89-181.97 kDa with the seven major proteins of 63.10, 60.25, 58.88, 47.86, 44.66, 33.88 and 28.84 kDa molecular weights. On immunoblotting with polyclonal rabbit serum raised against M. agalactiae RPNS 216. All the major proteins appeared immunogenic with 12-14 immunogenic polypeptides. Out of them proteins of 47.86, 44.66, 33.88 and 28.84 kDa might be of protective and diagnostic importance for M. agalactiae and could be the source for future diagnostics in India.
  V. Nourani , A.A. Moghaddam , A.O. Nadiri and V.P. Singh
  This study evaluates the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) methodology for estimating the groundwater level in some piezometers implanted in complex aquifer of Northwestern Iran. This aquifer is the more complex and has high water level in urban area. Spatiotemporal groundwater level simulation in a multilayer aquifer is regarded as a difficult subject in hydrogeology due to complexity and different aquifer materials. In present research the performance of different neural networks in a groundwater level forecasting is examined in order to identify an optimal ANN architecture that can simulate selected piezometers water levels and provide acceptable predictions up to 24 months ahead. Six different types of network architectures and training algorithms are investigated and compared in terms of model prediction efficiency and accuracy. The different experiment results show that accurate predictions can be achieved with a standard feedforward neural network trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Obtained structure and spatial regression relations of the ANN parameters (weights and biases) are used for spatiotemporal model presenting. It was found in this study that the ANNs provide the most accurate predictions when an optimum number of spatial and temporal inputs were included into the network and that the network with lower lag consistently produced better performance.
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