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Articles by V.O. Ogugbuaja
Total Records ( 9 ) for V.O. Ogugbuaja
  E.I. Uwah , J.C. Akan , E.A. Moses , J. Abah and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Levels of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate concentrations of edible parts of some fresh vegetable samples obtained from Alau dam and Gongula in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria were determined. The anions were determined from samples of spinach, lettuce, cabbage, carrot, onion, tomato, beans, groundnut and garlic during their harvesting stages. The anions were determined by Uv-Visible spectrophotometry. The results showed no significant difference between anion levels in vegetable from the two sampling areas p< 0.05. The values obtained were below the tolerance levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, the consumption of these vegetables as food does not pose health hazard to human and animal as a result of these anions.
  F.I. Abdulrahman , P.A. Onyeyili , S. Sanni and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  This study investigated the sub-acute effects of aqueous root bark extract of Vitex doniana on some serum elemental components as well as serum biochemical parameters in rats. Serum sodium levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased following extract treatments while those of potassium were decreased. The extract decreased serum calcium concentration but no marked effect was observed on serum phosphorus concentration. The cholesterol level also decreased in the rats treated with higher concentration of extract (100 and 200 mg kg-1), while the protein concentration in the serum of treated animals was comparable with that of control except at 200 mg kg-1 which showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in protein level at 21 days of extract treatment. Levels of liver marker enzymes and blood urea nitrogen in the extract treated rats increased in a dose-dependent manner and could be due to the pathological lesions in the liver and kidney which are the main excretory system. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana though used for the management of some illness such as diarrhea, jaundice, anemia, mental illness, rheumatism and as tranquilizer in man, has been observed in rats under the conditions of this study to be toxic to both the liver and kidney.
  F.I. Abdulrahman , P.A. Onyeyili , U.K. Sandabe and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Aim of this study to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Vitrex doniana on the peripheral and central nervous systems and possibility to use it as folk medicine. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana was soxhlet extracted with distilled water and concentrated in vacuo to give a yield of 8.5% w/w. The LD50 following intraperitoneal administration was estimated to be 980 mg kgG1. The aqueous extract of Vitex doniana from the study produced substantial depressant effects on both the peripheral and central nervous system. The aqueous extract induced sleep on its own at dose of 400 mg kgG1 and potentiated sodium thiopental sleeping time in a dose dependant manner. It also showed significant (p< 0.05) muscle relaxant activities and produced analgesia and weal anesthetic effect. The extract was able to confer 80% protection to rats treated with convulsive dose of PTZ, while it conferred 100% protection to rats treated with convulsion dose of strychnine.
  Y. Karumi , P.A. Onyeyili and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Momordica balsamina leaf was investigated for it`s chemical and traces elemental content. The air-dried samples were subjected to soxlet extraction using the solvents petroleum ether, methanol and water of different polarities. The extract fractions were concentrated and subjected to phytochemical screening to identify which component was high in concentration. The aqueous fraction, which is commonly used by traditional herbal healers, was further, subjected to column chromatographic separation and the recombined fraction of the column was further subjected to thin layer chromatography for identification. The air-dried sample was digested and analyzed for trace elements using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid in high concentration followed by saponins, tannins and reducing compound, respectively. Sterols and triteperes were absent in all the solvents used. The analysis of the recombined column fraction of the aqueous extract indicated the presence of the tannins in two of ten fractions, alkaloids in four, saponins in two and the last fraction indicated the presence of reducing compounds. The thin layer chromatography identified the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the different fractions of the column. In conclusion therefore, M. balsamina as shown here do posses some active chemical constitutes like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, Fe, Zn and Mn.
  Y. Karumi , P. Onyeyili and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  The effect of aqueous leaves extract of M. balsamina on acetic acid induced writhes/stretches (Anti nociceptive/analgesic effect) and egg albumen induced edema (Anti-inflammatory effect) was studied. Three different doses of the leaves extract were administered to three groups of rats 30 minutes prior to the administration of acetic acid. Pentzocin was used as the standard Analgesic drug. Another Randomized Block Design of three blocks was administered with three different doses of the leaf preparation 30 minutes prior to the induction and oedema with egg alburnen. Pure aspirin was used as the standard anti-inflammatory agent. The treatment with the plant preparation cause dose dependent significant (p<0.05) protection against the writhes/stretches produced by acetic acid administrations and oedema induced by egg albumen. These protections were found to be superior to those of the standard drugs used. The result of the findings establishes the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract of M. balsamina and concludes therefore, that there was a positive correlation (r = 90) in the dose response relationship for both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.
  J.C. Akan , F.I. Abdulrahman , J.T. Ayodele and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Levels of Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr), as well as pH, redox potential (Eh), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), temperature, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate were determined in River Challawa, Kaon State, Nigeria. These parameters were simultaneously monitored. Physio-chemical examination revealed that the levels of pH (6.81±0.10 and 10.23±0.32 mg L 1), Eh (-46.31.34 to -87.21.54m/v), TDS (40.33.24 to 70.18.40 mg L 1), temperature (8.20.14 to 12.80.24 C), sulphate (22.60.21 to 43.50.31 mg L 1) and nitrate (1.110.02 to 4.040.03 mg L 1) were below the maximum permissible limits set by WHO and FEPA for drinking water and aquatic ecosystem. Concentration of heavy metals; Cu, Co, Zn, Fe, Pb, Mn and Cr were significantly above the maximum allowable levels set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and WHO levels for drinking water and for protection of aquatic ecosystem. The levels of DO and phosphate in the water samples exceeded the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (NFEPA) tolerance limits for drinking water and water meant for domestic uses. This may have deleterious effect on aquatic ecosystem and the health of the rural dweller that use the river water directly for domestic purposes without treatment.
  G.A. Dimari , F.I. Abdulrahman , J.C. Akan and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  Atmospheric air was collected using Absorption train method from Shukwari Ward of Maiduguri Metropolis, Nigeria between the periods of January to December, 2004 and was analyzed for nitrogen dioxide by colorimetric method. The sulphur dioxide ranged from 0.321-0.078082 g m 3. for day times hours (8:00am-5:0pm), while for night times it could also be observed that concentrations between the soft hours of 1:00-3:00 am were relatively stable for the period of analysis with the exception of December, May and June, 2004. The mean day times concentrations with error bars of NO2 ranged from 0.253 0.101-0.159 0.082 g m 3. The highest mean concentration was determined in March while the lowest was observed in December, 2004. The highest night time concentration peaked in June while the lowest was determined in November. Statistical data handling by regression analysis (p< 0.05) of day and night concentrations of NO2 showed no correlation (r = 0.4). From the results, the concentration of NO2 was within the World Health Organization and other national guideline values for clean air.
  J.C. Akan , V.O. Ogugbuaja , F.I. Abdulrahman and J.T. Ayodele
  Concentration of dissolved copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), as well as pH, redox potential (Eh), dissolved oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), temperature, nitrate, sulphate and phosphate were determined in River Challawa and tap water from Challawa, Sharada and Bompai industrial areas, Kano State, Nigeria. Samples were collected for a period fifteen weeks. River Challawa is the main water supply source for Kano town and numerous industries within this area. Apart from being a source of water supply, it serves as a sink for industrial and municipal wastes. These parameters were simultaneously monitored. Physico-chemical examination revealed that the levels of pH (6.81±0.10 to 10.23±0.32), Eh (-46.3±1.34 to -87.2±1.54 mV), TDS (40.3±3.24 to 70.1±8.40 mg L-1), temperature (8.2±0.14 to 12.8±0.24°C), sulphate (22.6±0.21 to 43.5±0.31 mg L-1) and nitrate (1.11±0.02 to 4.04±0.03 mg L-1) in River Challawa and tap water from Challawa, Sharada and Bompai industrial areas were below the maximum permissible limits set by WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Nigeria for drinking water and aquatic ecosystem. Concentration of heavy metals; Cu, Co, Zn, Fe, Pb, Mn and Cr in River Challawa were significantly above the maximum allowable levels set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and WHO levels for drinking water and for protection of aquatic ecosystem, while for tap water the concentration of heavy metals were within safe limits. The levels of DO and phosphate in River Challawa exceeded the FEPA tolerance limits for drinking water and water meant for domestic uses. This may have deleterious effect on aquatic ecosystem and the health of the rural dwellers that use the river water directly for domestic purposes without treatment.
  M.Y. Mahre , J.C. Akan , E.A. Moses and V.O. Ogugbuaja
  The aim of this study is to determine pollutant indicators in River Kaduna, Kaduna State Nigeria. Water and Sediment samples from River Kaduna, Nigeria were collected and analyzed for pH, temperature, total dissolved solid, phosphate, nitrate, sulphate and the organic pollution indicators. These include Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of the water samples and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) of the sediment samples. The water and sediment samples were also analyzed for the following metal contents, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Unicam, Model, SOLAAR 969), while Hg was determined using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model AA-670. Organic pollutants were analyst using standard procedure. Correlation coefficients of organo-pollutants with each metal determined were used to establish the relationships between the metals and the organic pollution indicators, notably COD, BOD5 and % TOC. The metal levels correlated highly with BOD, COD and %TOC, which indicate the ability of the organo-pollutants to scavenge the metal ions. The levels of metals found in water samples varied from 0.04-0.29 mg L-1 for Mn, 0.05-0.32 mg L-1 for Cu, 0.10-3.62 mg L-1 for As, 0.08-0.10 mg L-1 for Cd, 0.22-1.10 mg L-1 for Fe, 0.25-0.70 mg L-1 for Zn, 1.72-2.50 mg L-1 for Hg and 0.50-0.90 mg L-1 for Pb. From the results, the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment samples, BOD and COD were found to be above the recommended permissible limits set by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Nigeria, World Health Organization (WHO)/European Union (EU). It is inevitable that protective measurement must be started very soon as this may have deleterious effect on aquatic ecosystem and the health of the rural dwellers that use the river water directly for domestic purposes without treatment.
 
 
 
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