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Articles by V.H.A. Enemor
Total Records ( 6 ) for V.H.A. Enemor
  V.H.A. Enemor , V.N. Okoye and U.L. Awoke
  Ethanol extract of Sida acuta leaves was administered to wistar albino rats to monitor the effects of the plant components on some organ function parameters including creatinine, urea and bilirubin, as well as some physiologically important electrolytes. Thirty six animals, divided into six groups of six animals each and labeled A, B, C, D, E and F were used. Doses of the extract 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg-1 b.wt., were administered daily for two weeks to groups A, B, C, D and E, respectively. The animals in group F (control) were sustained on normal diet and water during the studies. Creatinine was assayed by the Jaffe reaction whereas urea was analyzed using diacetyl monoxime reaction. Bilirubin measurement was carried out by diazotized sulphanilic acid reaction. Chloride was analyzed by use of Randox reagent kit while sodium and potassium were done by means of flame photometer. Decreases (p>0.05) in mean concentrations (mg dL-1) of both urea and creatinine were recorded for all the test groups, comparative to the control. Serum bilirubin concentrations (mg dL-1) were relatively nonsignificantly affected by the extract. Studies on electrolytes showed significant decreases in serum Na+ concentration (mmol L-1) for doses 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. and above. Similarly, K+ and HCO3¯ concentrations (mmol L-1) were reduced significantly whereas Cl¯ concentrations (mmol L-1) were significantly increased for all the experimental groups, comparative to the control. However, notwithstanding that Sida acuta extract may not impair liver and kidney functions, possible effects on fluid and electrolyte balance should be seriously monitored.
  C.G. Okoli , F.A. Edo , I.P. Ogbuewu , I.J. Nwajiobi , V.H.A. Enemor and I.C. Okoli
  Background and Objective: Pigs generates a large number of dungs that could be detrimental to the environment if not properly managed. This study attempt to determine the proximate and mineral compositions in freshly voided pig dung collected from smallholder farms in Imo state, Nigeria for possible use as animal feed. Materials and Methods: Early morning dung were collected from six farms, two from each of the three agro-ecological zones of the state and sundried. The samples were analyzed for their proximate and mineral concentration. Results: The result revealed that pig dungs are good source of dry matter (87.97%), fibre (23.33%), total ash (23.24%) and mineral (potassium, iron, phosphorus). Conclusion: This study revealed that pig dung is a good source of nutrients and could be used as animal feed. The use of pig dungs in animal feed and fertilizer for agricultural soil will lead the development of sustainable environmentally friendly animal and crop farming systems.
  I.C. Okoli , C.O.I. Udedibie , C.C. Achonwa , I.P. Ogbuewu , N.J. Anyanwu and V.H.A. Enemor
  Background and Objective: The leaves of many tropical plants are habitually given to animals as fodder without adequate knowledge of the nutritional and pharmacological compositions that generate their desirable effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical characteristics of leaf meals of Garcinia kola, Gongronema latifolium and Mucuna pruriens as candidate nutraceuticals in animal production. Materials and Methods: They were collected from surrounding farmlands and bushes at Ihiagwa, Owerri west Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo state, Nigeria. The leaf meals were subjected to physicochemical characterization to determine their bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), specific gravity (SG), proximate composition, metabolizable energy, fibre fractions, minerals and secondary metabolite concentrations. Results: The G. latifolium had higher bulk density than M. pruriens and G. kola, while G. kola had higher water holding capacity (WHC) value. The G. latifolium yielded highest crude protein, crude fat, total ash and metabolizable energy values, while for crude fiber contents of M. pruriens yielded the highest. Conclusion: It is therefore, concluded that G. latifolium, G. kola and M. pruriens are endowed with essential nutrients and bioactive substances.
  V.H.A. Enemor and A.N.C. Okaka
  Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯ were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p>0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p<0.05) for B and C. Ca2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p<0.05) decreases, except for A (p>0.05). Decreases (p< 0.05) for C, D, E and (p>0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl¯. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p<0.05). From the analysis, it could be concluded that Sarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to physiologically important degrees. Significant reductions in sodium and calcium levels indicate the usefulness of the plant in treatment of hypertension and pain/fever, respectively. However, significant reductions in chloride may negatively affect the normal balance of fluid in the body. Therefore, more scientific research is needed to establish the best approach to optimizing the numerous medicinal potentials of the plant.
  C.O. Ujowundu , C.U. Igwe , V.H.A. Enemor , L.A. Nwaogu and O.E. Okafor
  Aqueous leaf extracts of Boerhavia diffusa and Commelina nudiflora were evaluated for nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions. The results showed that both vegetables contained saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. The proximate and vitamin compositions of B. diffusa and C. nudiflora included mainly moisture (82.22% and 88.63%), carbohydrate (10.56% and 5.67%), vitamin C (44.80 and 41.60mg/100g dry weight), vitamin B3 (97.00 and 66.20mg/100g) and vitamin B2 (22.00 and 8.70mg/100g) respectively. The mineral contents of the defatted leaf extracts were found to be Na (162.50 and 75.55mg/100g), Ca (174.09 and 240.00mg/100g) and Mg (8.68 and 6.63mg/100g) for B. diffusa and C. nudiflora respectively. Iodine was detected at 0.002mg/100g in B. diflusa leaf extract only. The proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions obtained suggest that the leaves, as cheap sources of vitamins C, B3 and B2, as well as other macro-and micro-nutrients, can be incorporated into human and animal diet to meet their recommended daily allowances. The content of flavonoids and vitamin C in the leaf extracts also suggests possible anti-oxidant effects of these leafy vegetables.
  V.H.A. Enemor , C.E. Oguazu , A.U. Odiakosa and S.C. Okafor
  Background and Objective: In countries where cultivation of Citrullu slanatus (watermelon) is on the increase, watermelon is known to have invaluable benefits. Watermelon seeds are often discarded while the fleshy fruit is eaten. This study aimed at determining the medicinal and nutritive bioactive components of Citrullus lanatus through proximate, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and phytochemical analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, seeds of watermelon were analyzed for proximate, minerals, phytochemicals and vitamin content. The proximate analysis, minerals content, vitamins, amino acids and phytochemicals screening were performed using standard guideline of AOAC, GC-MS, AAS, HPLC and the statistical analysis was carried out using the Microsoft excel software 2010 version. Results: The proximate analysis results indicated that the watermelon seeds had moisture 48.7%, ash content 0.96%, fat 22.77%, carbohydrate 13.99% and protein content 8.9%. The amino acid profile showed the seeds were rich in phenylalanine, arginine, valine, glutamate and serine content. Vitamins A and C at 68.13 and 19.45 mg kg1, respectively were the most abundant vitamins in the seeds. The seeds also contained appreciable mineral elements such as; Fe, Mg, Na and K with K (18.189 ppm) being the highest. The phytochemistry of the samples showed a lot of compounds with known medicinal effects. Conclusion: The present findings suggested watermelon seeds as considerable source of nutrients in the diet and may have health and economic benefits due to its vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals with high level of antioxidant activities and consequently a very useful potential nutraceutical.
 
 
 
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