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Articles by V. Sejian
Total Records ( 3 ) for V. Sejian
  T.V. Meenambigai and V. Sejian
  Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocyst and these cells have the capability to generate all embryonic tissues in vitro. This propensity of ES cells has acquired considerable attention in recent years due to the promising potential for future cell replacement-based therapies. The in vitro differentiation capacity of ES cells provides unique opportunities for experimental analysis of gene regulation and function during cell commitment and differentiation in early embryogenesis. The ES cells are pluripotent cell lines with the capacity of self-renewal and a broad differentiation plasticity. They are derived from pre-implantation embryos and can be propagated as a homogeneous, uncommitted cell population for an almost unlimited period of time without losing their pluripotency and their stable karyotype. The ES cell technology is of high interest for researchers associated with livestock species. Simultaneously, research activities are being focused on characteristics and differentiation potential of Somatic Stem Cells (SSCs), unraveling an unexpected plasticity of these cell types. Somatic stem cells are found in differentiated tissues and can renew themselves in addition to generating the specialized cell types of the tissue from which they originate. Additional to discoveries of SSCs in tissues that were previously not thought to contain these kinds of cells, they also appear to be capable of developing into cell types of other tissues, but have a reduced differentiation potential as compared to embryo-derived stem cells. Therefore, SSCs are referred to as multipotent rather than pluripotent. This review summarizes characteristics of pluripotent ESCs in bovines and evaluates their potentials for in vitro propagation and differentiation as well as their potential uses in cell based therapies.
  Athira P. Ratnakaran , V. Sejian , V. Sanjo Jose , Shalini Vaswani , M. Bagath , G. Krishnan , V. Beena , P. Indira Devi , Girish Varma and R. Bhatta
  Climate change leads to several environmental stresses that affects livestock production. In order to re-store the productive potential the animals need to adapt to the existing climatic conditions. An animal may respond to a particular stress either through behavioral, physiological or by a combination of both and reactions of an animal to a particular stress can vary based on the animal’s earlier experience with the stressors, the duration and its intensity, the physiological status and environmental restraints. The aim of this study is therefore to understand the significance of behavioral responses in livestock adaptation. In the livestock sector, stress is considered as a reflex reaction that happens when animals are undergone through severe climatic and environmental changes and this can lead to several unfavorable consequences which can lead to even death of an animal. The discomfort which has been faced by the animals due to such stress conditions are resolved by them by generating various adaptation techniques. These adaptation techniques generated can compromise the productivity and performance of an animal. Farm animals try to cope up with different stresses by using behavioral stress responses. A better understanding of the behavior of livestock could enable improved handling and animal welfare. Assessing the behavioural response should help the farmers to take immediate step to identify and minimize the stressful conditions faced by their animals and should keep their animals in a comfort zone by employing better management strategies.
  V. Sejian , T.V. Meenambigai , M. Chandirasegaran and S.M.K. Naqvi
  Farm animal selection and reproduction are on the threshold of the application of new biotechnologies. Modern biotechnologies will allow advances to be made. Research into physiology and embryology has provided a basis for the development of technologies that increase productivity of farm animals through enhanced control of reproductive function. The livestock provides many opportunities to utilize these disciplines and evolving competencies. Artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, cloning, transgenics and genomics all are components of the tool box for present and future applications. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate reproductive function has important implications for this diverse field. Several peptides play a role in determining the normal functioning of the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. Kiss1 neurons have emerged as primary transducers of internal and environmental cues to regulate the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Leptin serves as a metabolic signal that acts on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis to enhance GnRH and LH secretion and ovarian function. Leptin effects on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) /LH secretion are mediated by NPY and kisspeptin. In recent years, livestock productivity has been increased by improved reproduction. Various techniques have been developed and refined to obtain a large number of offspring from genetically superior animals or obtain offspring from infertile animals. These techniques include: artificial insemination, cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, induction of multiple ovulations, embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, nuclear transfer, cloning, etc. Further the wide development radio-immuno-assay technology offers wide scope for improving the reproductive efficiency of farm animals. RIA technique for early non-pregnancy diagnosis can be integrated in to AI programmes in order to increase their effectiveness, reduce the unproductive period of dairy cows and increase the economic benefits to farmers. The greater challenge lies ahead for animal researchers is to integrate and potentially exploit these novel technologies in a society-friendly manner. Accepting this challenge and working towards achieving such targets should enable us to reap maximum benefits from the farm animal sector.
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